- Not to be confused with Sagrada Família, which is a large church by Antoni Gaudí, also in Barcelona
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia (Template:Lang-ca, Template:Lang-es), also known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain. The cathedral was constructed from the 13th to 15th centuries, with the principal work done in the 14th century. The cloister, which encloses the Well of the Geese (Font de les Oques) was completed in 1448.<ref name="catedralbcn.org">http://www.catedralbcn.org/</ref> In the late 19th century, the neo-Gothic façade was constructed over the nondescript exterior that was common to Catalan churches. The roof is notable for its gargoyles, featuring a wide range of animals, both domestic and mythical.
It is a hall church, vaulted over five aisles, the outer two divided into chapels. The transept is truncated. The east end is a chevet of nine radiating chapels connected by an ambulatory. The high altar is raised, allowing a clear view into the crypt.
The cathedral is dedicated to Eulalia of Barcelona, co-patron saint of Barcelona, a young virgin who, according to Catholic tradition, suffered martyrdom during Roman times in the city. One story says that she was exposed naked in the public square and a miraculous snowfall in mid-spring covered her nudity. The enraged Romans put her into a barrel with knives stuck into it and rolled it down a street (according to tradition, the one now called Baixada de Santa Eulàlia). The body of Saint Eulalia is entombed in the cathedral's crypt.
The choir stalls retain the coats-of-arms of the knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece. In his first trip into Spain, Charles, the future Holy Roman Emperor, selected Barcelona as the site of a chapter of his Order. The king had arrived for his investiture as Count of Barcelona, and the city, as a Mediterranean port, offered the closest communication with other far-flung Habsburg dominions, while the large proportions of the cathedral would accommodate required grand ceremonies. In 1518 the Order's herald, Thomas Isaac, and its treasurer, Jean Micault, were commissioned to prepare the sanctuary for the first sitting of the chapter in 1519. Juan de Borgonya executed the painted decoration of the sanctuary.
One side chapel is dedicated to "Christ of Lepanto", and contains a cross from a ship that fought at the Battle of Lepanto (1571).<ref name="cathreg">Template:Cite web</ref> Catalan legend states that during the battle, the corpus suddenly and miraculously shifted to the right to avoid being hit by a cannonball, a miraculous sign from God that the Ottomans would be defeated. The chapel of Christ of Lepanto also contains the shrine and sepulchre of Saint Olegarius, who was a Bishop of Barcelona and an Archbishop of Tarragona.
In addition to Saints Eulàlia and Olegarius, the cathedral contains the tombs of Saint Raymond of Penyafort, Count Ramon Berenguer I and his third wife Almodis de la Marche, and bishops Berenguer de Palou II, Salvador Casañas y Pagés, and Arnau de Gurb, who is buried in the Chapel of Santa Llúcia, which he had constructed.
The cathedral has a secluded Gothic cloister where 13 white geese are kept, the number explained by the assertion that Eulalia was 13 when she was martyred.<ref name="cathreg"/>
A program of cleaning and restoration of the cathedral was carried out from 1968-72.
A paleo-Christian basilica was constructed on the site (which faced the Roman forum of Barcelona) in the 4th century; its baptistry can be seen in the subterranean part of the nearby Museum of the City (Museu de la Cité). Reportedly, this Visigothic chapel was dedicated to Saint James, and was the proprietary church of the Viscounts of Barcelona.<ref name="ReferenceA">F. Carreras Candi La Ciutat de Barcelona</ref> However, in a document from the Second Council of Barcelona in 599, it states that the cathedral was dedicated to the Holy Cross.<ref name="catedralbcn.org"/> This church was severely damaged by al-Mansur (Almanzor) during his attack on Barcelona in 985.
In 1046, Count Ramon Berenguer I and his wife Almodis, together with Bishop Guislabert, began construction of a Romanesque cathedral at the site; it was consecrated in November 1058.<ref name="catedralbcn.org"/> The cathedral was constructed over the crypt of the former church. It has been reported that a Viscount of Barcelona, Mir Geribert, sold the site to Bishop Guislebert in 1058,<ref name="ReferenceA"/> however this date does not coincide with the reported start of construction.
The present Gothic cathedral was begun on the foundations of the previous churches on 1 May 1298; James II the Just was King of Aragon at the time, and Bernardo Pelegri was Bishop of Barcelona. The church was built from the east end towards the west end, with a simple west facade completed in 1417. The cloister was completed in 1448, making the total duration of construction 150 years. In the late 19th century, Miguel Girona i Agrafel offered to complete the neo-Gothic facade and towers as inspired by the original 15th century design and drawn by the architect Josep O. Mestres. This work was completed in 1913 by Girona's children.<ref name="catedralbcn.org"/>
- The tradition of the 'Dancing egg' is maintained on the day of Corpus Christi at the cathedral.
- Altar mayor de la Catedral de Barcelona.JPG
Illustration of the main altar (1839)
- Porta claustre catedral de Barcelona.jpg
Door in the cloister
- Capelles Bernardí i Roser catedral Barcelona.jpg
- Crypt of Santa Eulalia.jpg
Santa Eulàlia's Crypt
- Barcelona catedral cloister.jpg
Geese in the cloister
- Barcelona Cathedral cloister geese.jpg
Five of the thirteen white geese kept in the cloister
Choir seats at the Cathedral
- Creatity.com st eulalia fontain.jpg
The Fountain in the Atrium of the Santa Eulalia
The Cathedral garden
- Cathedral of Santa Eulalia - gargoyle 01.jpg
- Tomb of Saint Raymond of Penyafort.jpg
Tomb of Saint Raymond of Penyafort
- Catalunya en Miniatura-Catedral de Barcelona.JPG
Scale model of the cathedral, at the Catalunya en Miniatura park
- Barcelona, Cathedral and Palau del Lloctinent.jpg
Bell Tower with stair turret above the door of Saint Ivo.
- Official site Template:Ca icon
- Legends of Saint Eulalia. Martyrdom, Burial in Cathedral Crypt, Why it always rains during Barcelona Festival