Braga

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Template:Other uses Template:Use dmy dates Template:Infobox settlement Braga (Template:IPA-pt), is a city in the municipality of Braga in the northwestern Portuguese district of Braga. It is considered the oldest Christian archdiocese in the country and one of the oldest in the world. Under the Roman Empire, known as Bracara Augusta, the settlement was centre of the province of Gallaecia.

With a total urban population of 93,587 resident inhabitants,<ref name="city population INE">Census 2011 (INE) </ref> in 2011, Braga is the third-largest city in Portugal (after Lisbon and Porto), including the city and suburban parishes; the municipality, which includes 62 parishes, has a population in 2011 of approximately 181,819 inhabitants (the seventh largest municipality in Portugal by population). Its agglomerated urban area extends from the Cavado River to the Este River. Braga is also the seat of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Minho, which includes a population of 826,833 (2007 statistics), considered one of the fastest growing urban areas in the European Union. Template:Citation needed The city was the European Youth Capital in 2012.

History

For the Ecclesiastical history see Archbishopric of Braga

Antiquity

The region of Braga has been inhabited since the Neolithic, but since the Iron Age the Celtic Bracari occupied the territory, building their characteristic fortified villages (or castrum). It was the center of the Callaici Bracarii, or Bracarenses, one group of the Celtic tribe referred to by the Romans as the Gallaeci, that occupied what is now northern Portugal, Galicia and Asturias in the north west of Iberia.

The Romans began their conquest of the region around 136 BC, and finished it during the reign of Emperor Augustus. The civitas of Bracara Augusta was founded in 20 BC; in the context of the administrative reorganization of these Roman acquisitions, Bracara was re-dedicated to the Emperor taking on the name Bracara Augusta. The city of Bracara Augusta developed greatly during the 1st century and reached its maximum extension around the 2nd century. Towards the end of the 3rd century, Emperor Diocletianus promoted the city to the status of capital of the administrative area Conventus bracarensis, the south western area of the newly founded Roman province of Gallaecia.

Middle Ages

During the Germanic Invasions of the Iberian Peninsula, the area was conquered by the Suebi, a Germanic people from Central Europe. In 410, the Suebi established a Kingdom in northwest Iberia, which they maintained as Gallaecia, and made Bracara their capital. About 584, the Visigothic conquerors of Hispania took control of Gallaecia. They renounced the Aryan and Priscillianist hearesies during two synods held here in the 6th century. As a consequence, the archbishops of Braga later claimed the title of Primate of Portugal, then a county, and for a long period, claimed supremacy over the entire Hispanic church. Yet, their authority was never accepted throughout Hispania.

File:Braga-mapa mediaval.jpg
A 16th-century map of Braga, when the city was enclosed by its mediaeval wall. The large building in the centre is the Cathedral, while the Episcopal Palace and courtyards can be seen above the cathedral and the ancient Castle of Braga
File:Braga-sec-xvii.png
A 17th-century engraving of Braga, showing the walls of the city, which were slowly demolished to make way for new constructions
File:Rua Júlio Lima.JPG
A view of Rua Júlio Lima at the beginning of the 20th century

Braga had an important role in the Christianization of the Iberian Peninsula. The first known bishop of Braga, Paternus, lived at the end of the 4th century, although Saint Ovidius (d. 135 AD) is sometimes considered one of the first bishops of this city. In the early 5th century, Paulus Orosius (a friend of Augustine of Hippo) wrote several theological works that expounded the Christian faith, while in the 6th century Bishop Martin of Braga converted the Suebi from Arianism to Catholicism. At the time, Martin also founded an important monastery in Dumio (Dume), and it was in Braga that Archbishopric of Braga held their councils.

The transition from Visigothic reigns to the Muslim conquest of Iberia was very obscure, representing a period of transition and decline for the city. The Moors captured Braga early in the 8th century, but were eventually repelled by Christian forces under Ferdinand I of León and Castile in 1040. As a consequence, the bishopric was restored in 1070: the first new bishop, Pedro, started rebuilding the Cathedral (which was modified many times during the following centuries).

Between 1093 to 1147, Braga became the residencial seat of the Portuguese court. In the early 12th century, Count Henry of Portugal and bishop Gerald of Moissac reclaimed the archbishopric seat for Braga, with power over a large area in Iberia. The medieval city developed around the cathedral, with the maximum authority in the city retained by the archbishop.

Kingdom

In the 16th century, due to its distance from the coast and provincial status, Braga did not profit from the adventures associated with the Age of Portuguese Discoveries (which favoured cities like Lisbon, Évora and Coimbra, seats of the Portuguese court). Yet, Archbishop Diogo de Sousa, who sponsored several urban improvements in the city, including the enlargement of streets, the creation of public squares and the foundation of hospitals and new churches managed to modernize the community. He expanded and remodelled the cathedral by adding a new chapel in the Manueline style, and generally turning the mediaeval town into a Renaissance city.

A similar period of rejuvenation occurred during the 18th century, when the archbishops contracted architects like André Soares and Carlos Amarante, to modernize and rejuvenate the city; they began a series of architectural transformations to churches and civic institutions in the Baroque style, including the municipal hall, public library, the Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte and many urban palaces.

With the invasion of French troops, during the Peninsular Wars the city was reglected, once again, to a provincial status. But, by the second half of that century, with influence from Portuguese immigrants living in Brazil, new money and tastes resulted in improvements to architecture and infrastructures.

Republic

In the 20th century Braga faced similar periods of growth and decline; demographic and urban pressures, from urban-to-rural migration meant that the city's infrastructures had to be improved in order to satisfy greater demands. Template:Clear

Geography

Physical geography

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Climate

Braga has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) similar to other cities in the northwest Iberian Peninsula except for having significantly hotter summer temperatures due to being some distance from the ocean: the absolute maximum is as much as Template:Convert higher than for A Coruna or Santiago de Compostela. The highest recorded temperature is Template:Convert while the lowest recorded is Template:Convert. Template:Weather box

Human geography

Template:Wide image Template:Wide image Owing to its urbanized nature, it is assumed that Braga includes all the civil parishes in Braga Municipality. In reality, the city of Braga includes only the following urban civil parishes: Template:Div col

  • Arcos
  • Cividade
  • Dume
  • Espinho
  • Ferreiros
  • Fraião
  • Frossos
  • Gondizalves
  • Gualtar
  • Lamaçães
  • Lamas
  • Lomar
  • Maximinos
  • Nogueira
  • Nogueiró
  • Real
  • São João do Souto
  • São José de São Lázaro
  • São Pedro de Este
  • São Vicente
  • São Vítor
  • Tenões

Template:Div col end Similarly, while governmental authority is vested in the Câmara Municipal of Braga, this organ is responsible for the administration the municipality in its entirety, and not just the city of Braga. There is no formal city government, only municipal government authority, with local administration handled by the individual juntas de freguesia or civil parish councils.

Economy

The major industries in the municipality are construction, metallurgy and mechanics, software development and web design. The computer industry is growing rapidly.

Transportation

Braga is serviced by both regional and high-speed rail connection to major centres in the region. This regional district is also accessible from international and domestic air services, that include the regional aerodrome in Palmeira (Braga Aerodrome) and the Sá Carneiro International Airport, located 20 minutes away in the city of Porto.

Architecture

The city of Braga is rich in architectural buildings dating back to the late Neolithic and Roman eras, when it became a center for settlement. Apart from many of the sites and monuments located throughout the municipality of Braga, the historical city has been a storehouse of religious, military and civic architecture that includes many of the following sites:

Civic

  • Arch of the New Gate (Template:Lang-pt), the 18th-century city gate implemented to substitute the early Gothic entranceway;
  • Roman Thermae of Maximinus (Template:Lang-pt), an ancient Roman public baths complex, that was integrated into the life of Bracara Augusta, during the first centuries of Cividade;
  • Palace of the Falcões (Template:Lang-pt), a Baroque-era palace originally commissioned by Francisco de Meira Carrilho on 23 July 1703, and later, upon successive renovations, used by the Civil Governor's residence;
  • Fountain of the Idol (Template:Lang-pt), the 1st century Roman fountain dedicated to an indigenous god, located in the central civil parish of São José de São Lázaro;
  • Fountain of the Iron Waters (Template:Lang-pt), following the discovery in July 1173 of iron-rich springs in the parish of Fraião, Archbishop Gaspar de Bragança ordered the municipal council to begin the canalization of these waters for public use, giving rise to a series of fountains, such as the Baroque decorated main fountain;
  • Hospital of São Marcos (Template:Lang-pt), with a façade comparable to any religious monument in the city, the Hospital of São Marcos, is an example of the complex Baroque style of Carlos Amarante, featuring ornate double belfry and accents;
  • Palace of Raio (Template:Lang-pt), an 18th-century Baroque-Rococo urban residence, with richly decorated blue azulejo façade of Andre Soares;
  • Residence of the Crivos (Template:Lang-pt), a Renaissance-era shop-residence constructed outside the old walls characteristic of late Renaissance architecture and one of the few examples of a building covered in wood-lattice façade from this period.
  • Seven Sources Aqueduct (Template:Lang-pt), a complex network of aqueducts that provided potable water to citizenry of Braga;
  • Theatro Circo (Template:Lang-pt), 20th century revivalist theatre, known for its architecture, as much for the films, theatre plays and performances;

Military

  • Tower of Santiago (Template:Lang-pt), part of the ancient walls of Braga, the Tower of Santiago was designed by Portuguese Baroque master André Soares, based on a mixture of Gothic, Baroque and Rococo elements;
  • Tower of Braga Castle (Template:Lang-pt), the 14th century remains of the Gothic tower, which are all that remains of the ancient castle of the city;

Religious

File:Se Catedral de Braga.jpg
The sculpted black rock of the Sé Cathedral of Braga: seat of the bishops of Braga
File:Igrega de S Paulo Braga.jpg
The simple Romanesque façade of the Church of São Paulo
File:PópuloBraga.jpg
The Pópulo Church, that includes convent, dependencies and cloister
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The Church of Santa Cruz courtesy the Irmandade de Santa Cruz
  • Archiepiscopal Palace of Braga (Template:Lang-pt), between the 14th–18th centuries, a religious residence, but after the 20th century, the home of the municipal offices, public library and archive;
  • Chapel of the Espírito Santo (Template:Lang-pt), an example of mixed styles, the chapel includes elements of Baroque, Neoclassical and Mannerist eras;
  • Chapel of Nossa Senhora da Consolaçã (Template:Lang-pt), a simple single-nave chapel constructed in the Baroque-style
  • Chapel of São Bento (Template:Lang-pt), constructed in the middle of the 18th century, the chapel was blessed by Archbishop José of Bragança in 1755;
  • Chapel of Senhor do Bom Sucesso (Template:Lang-pt), a Baroque and Neoclassical chapel, is highlighted by a main façade, typical of André Soares, but constructed by Carlos Amarante, at the beginning of his career, who timidly applied Neoclassical decorative elements;
  • Chapel of the Coimbras (Template:Lang-pt), the providor for the bishopric of Braga, João de Coimbra constructed the chapel between 1525 and 1528, which is an example of the Manueline-style architecture;
  • Church of Santa Cruz (Template:Lang-pt), and the Hospital of the Brotherhood of the Holy Cross of Jerusalem (Template:Lang-pt), constructed in 1581, and later supported by the nuns of the Order Hospitaler;
  • Church of Santa Eulália (Template:Lang-pt), is a 13th-14th century Romanesque church, located near Bom Jesus do Monte;
  • Church of Santa Maria (Template:Lang-pt), constructed in 1560, under the orders of Archibishop Bartolomeu dos Mártires, as a church of the Society of Jesus;
  • Church of Santo André (Template:Lang-pt), an example of the reforumulations of the Modernist asthetic of the mid-20th century, the 18th-century church was adapted and expanded after the parishes deannexation in 1975;
  • Chapel of São Frutuoso (Template:Lang-pt), originally built by the Visigoths in the 7th century, the structure, alongside the Convent of São Francisco de Montélios, in the form of a Greek cross;
  • Chapel of São Sebastião das Caravelheiras (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Church of São Martinho (Template:Lang-pt), the Baroque and Classical parochial church of Espinho, known for its ornate façade and belfrey, as well as its Rococo interior;
  • Church of São Miguel de Frossos (Template:Lang-pt), a 16th-century parochial church in the civil parish of Frossos;
  • Church of São Miguel de Gualtar (Template:Lang-pt), part of the intense building period of the 16th-17th century, the parochial church of Gultar was constructed in the 17th century, but later remodelled during the 18th century;
  • Church of São Paio (Template:Lang-pt), located in Arcos, the church is an early 18th-century church (built in 1706);
  • Church of São Paulo (Template:Lang-pt), the historical seminary and church of Saint Paul with its contrast between stoic façade and decorated Baroque interior, built in the era of archbishop Bartholomew;
  • Church of São Pedro de Lomar (Template:Lang-pt), remnant of ancient Benedictine monastery of São Pedro in Lomar, the Church of Saint Peter exemplifies a mix of Baroque, Mannerist and Neoclassical architecture;
  • Church of São Pedro de Maximinos (Template:Lang-pt), known for the missing organ of organist Manuel de Sá Couto;
  • Church of São Tiago (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Church of São Vicente (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Convent of Nossa Senhora do Carmo (Template:Lang-pt), principally recognizable for its central spire/belfrey, which was designed by João de Moura Coutinho de Almeida e Eça, and constructed in the 17th-18th century;
  • Church of the Misericórdia (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Church of the Third Order of St. Francis (Template:Lang-pt), the Terceiros began the process of constructing their church in 1685, which they dedicated to Our Lady of Conception (Template:Lang-pt;
  • Church, Convent and College of the Congregation of São Filipe de Néri (Template:Lang-pt), attributed to the architect André Soares, for the complex/risky façade of the church and corner convent windows, Monk's chapel (or Chapel of Our Lady of the Appearance), and retable of Our Lady of Pain (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Convent of Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Template:Lang-pt), which includes the Chapel of São Domingos, an 18th-century convent, home to the Instituto Monsenhor Ariosa;
  • Convent of Pópulo (Template:Lang-pt), the Mannerist, Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical austere elements of the convent belying the extravagant interior, that was originally the home to Augustine monks, highlighted by the Baroque façade of the Church of Pópulo (Template:Lang-pt);
  • Convent of Salvador (Template:Lang-pt), began with the need to transfer the nuns from the Monastery of Vitorino das Donas in 1528
  • Convent of São Francisco de Montélios (Template:Lang-pt), the Baroque, Rococo and Neoclassical convent, highlighted by the imposing three-storey façade of the Church of São Jerónimo;
  • Cross of Nossa Senhora dos Aflitos (Template:Lang-pt), a Baroque cross on an ionic column, with an image of Christ in wood, surmounted by a rectangular Tuscan colonnade and roof;
  • Cross of the Espírito Santo (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Monastery of Dumio (Template:Lang-pt), the ancient religious seat founded by Martin of Braga in the provincial centre of Dume;
  • Monastery of Tibães (Template:Lang-pt), the 17th–18th century Benedictine monastery renowned for the ornate/artistic gilt work in its chancel and altars;
  • Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Monte, constructed on Monte Santo, overlooking the urban sprawl of Braga, the 18th to early-19th century, Neoclassic sanctuary and church (itself preceded by Baroque stairway), is reachable by trail or Bom Jesus funicular (one of the oldest in Iberian Peninsula);
  • Sanctuary of Nossa Senhora do Sameiro (Template:Lang-pt), isolated on the hilltop of Monte do Sameiro, the church and retreat began in 1861, from the mind of Father Martinho António Pereira da Silva, who wished to construct a monument dedicated to Our Lady of the Conception;
  • Sanctuary of Santa Maria Madalena (Template:Lang-pt), located on Monte Falperra, the Baroque-era sanctuary church, was designed by local architect André Soares, incorporating decorative elements into a two-bell tower homage to the Mary Magdalene;
  • Sé Cathedral of Braga (Template:Lang-pt)
  • Wayside shrine of São Brás (Template:Lang-pt), although conjecturally a contemporary monument, the wayside shrine in Ferreiros has the characteristics of many Baroque monuments in Braga;

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Museums

In addition, many of the district's treasures and historical artifacts are housed in several museums that are scattered throughout the city, such as:

  • Museum of the Biscainhos (Template:Lang-pt, housed in the historical Palace of the Biscainhos, the museum exhibits a permanent collection of decorative art, that includes furniture, ceramics, European and Oriental porcelain, European Glass, European and Portuguese watches and clocks;
  • Treasure Museum of the Sé Cathedral (Template:Lang-pt), the collection varies, but collects together artefacts from the 16th to 18th century during the period of religious/cultural exploration, associated with the Cathedral, including images and azulejo tiles;
  • Museum of Image (Template:Lang-pt), dedicated to photography, located near the Arco da Porta Nova and Braga Castle;
  • Museum Medina (Template:Lang-pt), located in the same building as the Museum of Pius XII, the collection is the home to the 83 oil paintings and 21 drawings of the painter Henrique Medina;
  • Museum of Nogueira da Silva (Template:Lang-pt), bequeathed to the University of Minho, the collection includes artefacts, paintings, furniture and sculptures collected over a lifetime, such as Renaissance artwork, 17th furniture, ceramics and objects in ivory, silver and religious art;
  • Museum of Pius XII (Template:Lang-pt), housing a collection of Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Bronze Age implements, Pre-historic and Luso-Roman pottery;
  • D. Diogo de Sousa Museum (Template:Lang-pt), its collection includes many items discovered during archaeological excavations within the municipality, extending as far back as the Palaeolithic to the Middle Ages.
  • Museum of String Instruments (Template:Lang-pt), the collection features Portuguese instruments as far back as the Middle Ages including Cavaquinhos, Portuguese guitars, Mandolins and banjos among others.

Education

The city is the headquarters and main campus for the Universidade do Minho (Minho University), a public university founded in 1973. A campus of Portugal's oldest private university of Portugal, the Universidade Católica Portuguesa, was also established in 1967, as well as the Escola Secundária Sá de Miranda (the oldest Secondary school in Braga).

In the late 2000s, the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory also opened their international research centre in the city.

The Braga Pedagogical Farm is a farm dealing with animals and agriculture, welcoming extra-curricular activities from schools and visitors.

Sports

Braga's football team, Sporting Clube de Braga, was founded in 1921 and play in the top division of Portuguese football, the Liga Sagres, from Braga Municipal Stadium, carved out of the Monte Castro hill that overlooks the city.

The Rampa da Falperra, a round of the European Hillclimb Championship, is held every year in the outskirts of the city.

The Circuito Vasco Sameiro and adjacent the Kartódromo Internacional de Braga are located around the local airfield. The racing track held European Touring Car Cup events in 2009 and 2010, and the KIB has held rounds of the Karting World Championship.

Notable citizens

  • Paulus Orosius (c. 385 – c. 420): Important historian and theologue from the Braga diocese, friend of St. Augustine.
  • Martin of Braga (c. 520 – 580): Bishop of Braga that converted the Suebi to Catholicism.
  • Diogo de Sousa (c. 1461 – 1532): Archbishop of Braga after 1505. A great sponsor of the arts, he remodelled the Cathedral and promoted the urbanisation of the city following Renaissance models. He also founded several churches and an important school (the São Paulo School).
  • Francisco Sanches (1550–1623): 16th-century physician born in the Braga diocese and educated in universities in France and Italy.
  • André Soares (1720–1769): 18th-century architect, designed several important Rococo buildings in Braga and Northern Portugal.
  • Irmã Maria Estrela Divina, religious and stigmatic woman. Buried in Braga Cathedral.
  • Domingos Leite Pereira: Portuguese politician of the Portuguese First Republic.
  • Maria Ondina Braga (1932–2003) escritora e cosmopolita
  • António Variações (1944–1984) innovative pop composer and singer
  • Marie Myriam (born Myriam Lopes in Braga, 8 May 1957) French singer of Portuguese origin, winner of 1977 Eurovision Song Contestwith "L'oiseau et l'enfant" ("The Bird and the Child"), written by Jean Paul Cara and Joe Grace.

International relations

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Twin towns – Sister cities

Braga is twinned with:

References

Notes

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External links

Template:PortugalLargestCities Template:Portuguese urban areas of 50,000 population Template:European Youth Capital