Caterham

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Template:About Template:Use dmy dates Template:Use British English Template:Infobox UK place Caterham (Template:IPAc-en) is a town in the Tandridge District of Surrey, England. The town is administratively divided into two: Caterham on the Hill and Caterham Valley that includes the main town centre in the middle of a dry valley but rises to equal heights to the south. The town lies close to the A22, centred Template:Convert from Guildford and Template:Convert south of Croydon, in an upper valley cleft into the dip slope of the North Downs. Caterham on the Hill is above the valley to the west. Due to its proximity to London, Caterham is a commuter town, with small-to-medium sized businesses of its own however relatively few business/industrial parks. It has a significant area of retail and restaurants in Caterham Valley as well as pubs dotted throughout.

History

An encampment on the top of White Hill, in Caterham Valley south of Caterham School, between Bletchingley and the town centre is called The Cardinal's Cap<ref name=sl/><ref name=malden>Template:Cite web</ref> which was excavated and inspected in designating it a Scheduled Ancient Monument. With close ramparts forming two or more lines, archaeologists describe the fort as a "large multivallate hillfort at War Coppice Camp".<ref name=hillfort/> Template:Quote

The town lies within the Anglo-Saxon feudal division of Tandridge hundred.

Post Norman Conquest

Caterham's church of St Lawrence is of Norman construction and retains a rector as its incumbent. In the reign of King John, Roger son of Everard de Gaist gave this including its church lands to the monastery of Waltham Holy Cross. Everard's grandfather was Geoffery of Caterham who gave land to his son in the 12th century. This monastery ran the glebe as a manor, receiving a grant of free warren in their demesne lands of Caterham in 1253;<ref name=malden/> holding it until the dissolution of the monasteries.

Caterham's original village centre consisted in the nearest part of the ridge of Caterham on the Hill to the railway station in Caterham Valley, including at the street ascending the relatively steep, short hill, Church Hill. Although no conservation area has been designated in either civil parish <ref name=map>Ordnance Survey map, courtesy of English Heritage</ref> four secular buildings, including The King and Queen Public House, three close churches as well as a vault and tomb in St Lawrence's churchyard are listed; these are along Hill Street/ Church Hill in Caterham on the Hill.

The combined manors of Caterham, Porkele, Upwode, Gatiers and Halyngbury

Porkele had been formerly included in the manor given to Waltham Abbey; together the latter manors comprised Template:Convert. Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham (1402–1460) held these manors leaving them in 1458 to his third son John Stafford, 1st Earl of Wiltshire when his son died without issue in 1499, under the terms of grant the elder branch, the following Duke of Buckingham inherited. His heirs sold them on the dissolution to Lord Berners who died in debt in 1533 resulting in bona vacantia and seizure by the Crown. In 1570 Thomas Sackville, 1st Earl of Dorset (as Lord Buckhurst, later Lord High Treasurer, held the 'manor of Caterham and Portele farm,' which he conveyed in that year to Henry Shelley; Sir Thomas's Sondes's widow leased the lands in 1599 to her half-brother, Main Plot seditionist Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham. Then in 1615 her daughter Frances Leveson gave the rest of that lease, due the tenant's attainder to Sir Edward Barrett and Walter Barrett while the reversion was held by Sir Richard Sondes. George Ede purchased this massive estate in 1612 and it passed to Jasper Ockley in 1616. Sir Isaac Shard who was one of two Sheriffs of the City of London in 1730 who conveyed it to Thomas Clark and then passed as with the other manors; in 1911 W. L. Williams its owner lived at Portley in what remained of the estate.<ref name=malden/> De Stafford School in Caterham on the Hill occupies a small part of the estate and is named after the earlier known owner. Adjoining Sunnydown School, state-run, is at what was Portley House<ref name=map/> and is for secondary education for boys with a Statement of Special Educational Needs.

The Manor of Salmons

The only manor did not have as high-profile owners. In 1339 John de Horne released some land Caterham (and more in Warlingham) to Roger Salaman, who at his death in 1343 was "seised of a tenement". A manor of Salmons appears in 1605 by William Jordan, who soon afterwards acquired the second manor of Caterham (see above) with which Salmons afterwards descended. It was bought out of Chancery, into which it went on the death of Charles Day, by George Drew, who sold to members of the Horne family, who owned the relatively small estate in 1911.<ref name=malden/>

Post Reformation

The Rectorial manor of Caterham

In 1544, the King granted the main rectorial manor was granted (in fee) to William Sackville JP In 1553 William Sackville and Eleanor passed the manor to Robert Hartopp, goldsmith of London, dying two years later succeeded by Elias his son, who was left it to his nephew John, whose widow Joan sold the manor in 1609 to George Evelyn who gave it to his son Sir John Evelyn on his marriage to Elizabeth Cocks.<ref name=malden/> Later owners of the manor were Sir John's purchaser James Linch, his issue including Susan Hussey and her son James who sold the manor in 1699 to George Roffey. His nephew inherited it of the same name and in 1770 his sons sold the title alone and perhaps house to Matthew Robinson. Richard Hewetson bought it in 1780 passing it to his nephew Henry Hewetson holding until the Regency period. Henry's nephew William Hewetson ceased to lay claim to any manorial rights however in any event the lands had been separately sold to Henry Rowed, whose son Henry settled the estate on his wife Susan Glover in 1765.<ref name=malden/> Their daughter Katherine Glover inherited these lands.<ref name=malden/>

A second manor Manning and Bray report on was the main tenant's under the monastery and was held by for example buyers: William Jordan in 1607; Sir Isaac Shard (see above), who held his first court in 1726; after 1825 Charles Day of the firm of Day & Martin held but leaving no clear heirs this estate ended up in the hands of the chancery. Taxing (costs) judge George Henry Drew held the main lands and title followed by W. L. Williams in 1911.<ref name=malden/>

Post Industrial Revolution

File:Coldstream Road, The Village, Caterham - geograph.org.uk - 1352815.jpg
Apartment conversion of the 19th century Caterham Barracks.

Under Rev. James Legrew in the early 19th century the church tithes were commuted for £400, retaining a glebe of Template:Convert.<ref name=sl/>

In 1840 Caterham contained a total of 477 residents (figures taken from that census, compiled in an 1848 topographical encyclopedia) and in 1848 Template:Convert of its Template:Convert were common land.<ref name=sl>Template:Cite web</ref> Similar to today, Template:Convert mostly steeper acres were woodland.<ref name=sl/>

The more modern locality of Caterham Valley in a wide dry valley opening to the north (to Warlingham) and along its slopes is a product of the Victorian age and the coming of the Caterham railway line in 1856, which is still a terminus.

Victorian expansion of the town required the building of a much larger parish church, leading to the Church of St Mary the Virgin's building in 1866, directly across the road from St Lawrence's. As it also grew Caterham Valley gained its own Anglican church, to St. John the Evangelist, which was consecrated in 1882.

From 1877 Caterham barracks on the hill was a depot for the footguards regiments.<ref name="Caterham Barracks">Template:Cite web</ref> In August 1975 a local public house (the Caterham Arms) which was frequented by soldiers was targeted by an IRA bomb. The barracks were closed in the 1990s and the site redeveloped for housing.<ref name=barrack_closure>Template:Cite web</ref>

Two high streets therefore serve two very close yet substantial and affluent communities (see demographics), one with the railway station and more modern buildings, one with more historic buildings as soon as the closest hill (to the northwest) is climbed from the heart of Caterham Valley.<ref name=map/> This set-up means that localism is present in that the Godstone Road during the middle of the 20th century bypassed Caterham Valley staying high and using Tillingdown, along the east of Caterham Valley from St John's School to the Croydon Road roundabout, thereby removing A22 traffic, while businesses set up and thrived in the valley itself.

On 6 July 1974 PC John Schofield was shot and killed while on patrol in Caterham.<ref name=surrey_police>Template:Cite web</ref>

Landmarks

The North Downs Way in Caterham

The North Downs Way, a popular National trail with walkers passes very close to the town and includes here a public house along Stanstead Road, readily accessible from Caterham, from either Harestone Valley Road or Tupwood Lane, the Celtic hillfort promontory of the Downs mentioned above The Cardinal's Cap and; Fosterdown or Pilgrims' Fort a London Defensive Fort at the top of part of the ridge forming Godstone Hill, in Caterham Valley.<ref name=map/>

Local Government

Surrey County Council, headquartered in Kingston, elected every four years, has two councillors from Caterham. David Hodge, leader of the county council and representative of Warlingham lives in Caterham.<ref name=hodge>Template:Cite web</ref>

Election Member<ref name=surrey_councillors>Template:Cite webTemplate:Dead link</ref>

Ward

style="background-color: Template:Liberal Democrats (UK)/meta/color" | 2009 John Alexander Orrick Caterham Hill
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2009 Sally Ann Barbara Marks Caterham Valley

Caterham has 10 representatives on Tandridge District Council, headquartered in Oxted:

Election Member

Ward

style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2009 Beverley Connolly Harestone
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2010 Michael Cooper Harestone
style="background-color: Template:Liberal Democrats (UK)/meta/color" | 2012 Christopher Botten Portley
style="background-color: Template:Liberal Democrats (UK)/meta/color" | 2011 Hilary Turner Portley
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2012 Geoffrey Duck Queens Park
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2010 Rod Stead Queens Park
style="background-color: Template:Liberal Democrats (UK)/meta/color" | 2010 Alexandra Caudle Valley
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2012 Jane Ingham Valley
style="background-color: Template:Liberal Democrats (UK)/meta/color" | 2012 David Gosling Westway
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2010 Eithne Webster Westway

Civil Parishes

Caterham Valley is the smaller in population of the two Civil Parish Councils with two wards and six elected parish councillors.<ref name=cv_councillors>Template:Cite web</ref> Caterham on the Hill has three wards and nine parish councillors.<ref name=CotH_councillors>Template:Cite web</ref>

Geography

Administrative Geography

Before 1889 Caterham was the most eastern market town of a Surrey that stretched north to Southwark. North eastern parts of the county were absorbed gradually, in part by the County of London in 1889 (to South Norwood and Wimbledon which as a result have London Postcodes) and then to towns and villages within the present boundaries that form Greater London in 1965. From 1885 Oxted and Godstone developed from villages to towns. Tandridge District formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of Caterham and Warlingham urban district along with Godstone Rural District.<ref name=surrey_map>Template:Cite web</ref>

Physical Geography

Caterham is Template:Convert from the county town of Guildford and Template:Convert south of London.<ref name=distance_calc>Template:Cite web</ref>

Caterham on the Hill is located on a considerable area of upland extending north past adjoining Kenley Aerodrome to Kenley and Hartley Hill in Reedham. This elevated area carries on west until Hooley/Old Merstham and forms a very narrow, fairly steep ridge south of Caterham Valley's centre; east of the centre of Caterham Valley are marginally higher rolling pastures of the North Downs on top of a more crevassed smaller mass of upland which forms the village of Woldingham followed by a much larger area of upland stretching from Biggin Hill to Downe and Knockholt, Kent.<ref name=map/>

The M25 motorway (between junctions 6 and 7) is 80 to 90m below and less than 200m south of the North Downs path and the southern border of Caterham Valley civil parish and is linked by an uninterrupted hilltop dual carriageway to the north of Caterham and its lowest point, Croydon Road roundabout. <ref name=os_map>Template:Cite map</ref>

Elevation Soil and Geology

Template:Quote box Elevations range from 230m Above Ordnance Datum in the southwest extreme, "Whitehill Tower, War Coppice Road in Caterham Valley". to 110m Above Ordnance Datum along the railway track, immediately below Croydon Road roundabout, a tripoint partly in Woldingham, Whyteleafe and Caterham.

Caterham lies within the North Downs and Caterham Valley's southern border is immediately south of the North Downs Way, part of a national trail network, which is here on top of the southern edge of the North Downs.<ref name=national_trail>Template:Cite web</ref>

Soil here has the expected shallow, lime-rich soil over chalk or limestone of the escarpment with lower parts of the escarpment summit here, where the topsoil has eroded, having slightly acid, loamy and clayey soils with impeded drainage, which makes that soil particularly fertile.

The gault clay and the middle chalk that lies under the North Downs are both at their thickest around the valley that occupies the centre of Caterham Valley.<ref name=surrey_geosurvey>Template:Cite web</ref> While earlier cretaceous clays and greensand and sandy material, underlying, is evident where terrain has eroded, 90 million years ago the North Downs hard chalk was deposited, a white limestone comprising over 95% calcium carbonate. It contains thin beds of marl and nodules of flint, either scattered or in bands. The North Downs extending from Farnham to Dover are formed by this chalk. They now have an often white, almost vertical south-facing slope. In lower slopes flints washed up by early seas come more to the surface and appear closer to the surface.<ref name=sl/>

Template:Geographic location

Localities

Caterham Valley

Caterham Valley has the more developed High Street presenting the main town centre for the whole community and is one of the two wards that has a population of 7,581. Adding a third layer of local services and upkeep, both wards form civil parishes and the parish council clerk is Bill Ridley. The parish church of St. John the Evangelist was consecrated in 1882. The railway station is in the central, dry valley at the heart of this very large neighbourhood.

Caterham on the Hill

File:Caterham Asylum TQ3255 258.JPG
All that remains of Saint Lawrence's Hospital

Caterham on the Hill is the second of the two wards. This clustered development or village is directly to the northwest of the other entire Valley part of the town and does not have steep slopes or a wide divide between upland and downland developments unlike Caterham Valley. It has a population of 11,555; it was the original development so has a few additional listed buildings compared to Caterham Valley which has a few early Victorian outlying homes and its church listed. More schools are in this part of the town, including Caterham School. The parish council clerk is Helen Broughton.

Former barracks

The Caterham Barracks Trust run some facilities at the site of the former Caterham Barracks Guards Depot. The site is occupied by a supermarket, housing and various leisure facilities, including an arts centre (The Arc) an indoor Skate park (wittily called Skaterham) housed in the former Guard's chapel.

Terry Waite and David Stirling (the founder of the SAS) trained at the barracks.

A number of films / TV series were fully or partially filmed at the barracks. They Were Not Divided filmed by Two Cities Films and Invasion: Earth series filmed by the BBC.

1975 Events

In 1975 an IRA bomb exploded in the Caterham Arms public house injuring 10 off-duty soldiers and 23 civilians.

Demolished Buildings

Caterham Asylum, later known as Caterham Mental Hospital and later still as Saint Lawrence's Hospital was a large establishment. Joey Deacon lived there. Most of the site had now been redeveloped as housing but a few buildings remain, although they are now empty and planning permission has been given for the buildings to be demolished and 161 homes built on the site. Joey Deacon's bungalow 'Holland House' is scheduled for demolition but the 'Blue Peter' bungalow 'Woodview' is to remain as a care home.

Hospital

It has its own mixed public and private hospital, Caterham Dene.

Demography and housing

As of the 2011 census, Caterham has a total population of 21,090 people among 8,543 households, an increase of 130 households in 10 years.

2011 Census Homes
Output area Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes shared between households<ref name=ons>Key Statistics; Quick Statistics: Population Density United Kingdom Census 2011 Office for National Statistics Retrieved 21 November 2013</ref>
Caterham on the Hill (civil parish) 1,185 1,666 963 1,208 0 0

The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average that was apartments was 22.6%.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares<ref name=ons/>
Caterham on the Hill (civil parish) 12,742 5,022 31.2% 44.7% 353

The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings (plus a negligible % of households living rent-free).<ref name=ons/>

2011 Census Homes
Output area Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes shared between households<ref name=ons/>
Caterham Valley (civil parish) 1,034 854 229 1,393 11 0

See notes above.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares<ref name=ons/>
Caterham Valley 8,348 3,521 33.6% 40.2% 588

See notes above.

Commerce

File:Geograph-1785390-by-Peter-Trimming.jpg
Caterham-on-the-Hill's high street

Church Walk

Church Walk Shopping Centre is a small shopping mall situated opposite Caterham railway station in Caterham Valley. Church Walk was built on the site of the Valley Hotel, which was demolished in 1988. Long before the Valley Hotel was built (to cater for visitors arriving on the new railway trains) there used to be a tennis court, croquet lawn, rose garden, fountain, and Mr. Woollet's nursery.

Local companies

Caterham Cars, makers of the Caterham 7 sports car no longer have a presence in the town - having had to move to Crawley in Feb 2013 so that the building that they occupied could be turned into more homes for retired people.

The house building company, Croudace, have their head office in Caterham. Caterham and DeStafford Schools and several supermarket chains are also large local employers. The Town also has lots of vacant buildings - most of which are behind hoardings..<ref name=Employers>Template:Cite journal</ref>

Transport

Caterham railway station is the modern terminus of the 1856-built Caterham Line from Purley. Trains operate into London Victoria station and London Bridge station.

Eight bus routes operate through Caterham, with half being operated by Metrobus. They run buses from Caterham to places such as East Grinstead, Croydon, Redhill and Oxted. Of the remaining four routes, buses are run by: Quality Line to Old Coulsdon; Abellio London to Sutton; Arriva London to Addington Village; and Southdown PSV to East Grinstead.<ref name=BusRoutes>Template:Cite web</ref>

Sport

Caterham has two youth football clubs, Caterham Pumas FC and Queens Park FC. The Old Caterhamians Rugby Football Club, was established in 1928. Caterham Cricket Club previously played in Queen's Park and now share facilities with the rugby club. Caterham Sea Cadets, formed in 1942, also participate in a number of watersports activities.Template:Citation needed

Queens Park YFC play their home games in the heart of Caterham - at Queens Park and are an FA Chartered Standard Club. They have a number of youth teams and are looking to set up an Under 21 team in the summer of 2012.

Caterham Pumas Football Club play their matches at Joliffe Playing Field. They have youth football teams for children under six to those under eighteen; they also have two adult teams.<ref name=Pumas>Template:Cite web</ref>

Education

File:Caterham School.jpg
Caterham School

Caterham has a mixture of state and private schools. The two most notable private schools in Caterham are Caterham School and Oakhyrst Grange School, both are on the outskirts of the town. The main state secondary school is de Stafford School. A secondary school for boys with special educational needs called Sunnydown school is also in Caterham on the Hill. The Laurels Day Nursery and Preschool is located at Town End. There are also several state and private primary schools in the town.

Culture and community

A community arts centre and theatre situated in the old Caterham Barracks. The building is made out of the two converted gymnasiums. There is a skatepark called "Skaterham" in Caterham on The Hill. It has indoor and outdoor sections, built on the grounds of the former Guards Chapel.

Based in the town centre the Miller Centre is a theatre and community centre that puts on regular non-professional shows, films and is host to a number of clubs and community groups.

The small East Surrey Museum houses a local history collection.

An annual carnival is held in the town, with a procession of floats and a fete.<ref name=carnival>Template:Cite web</ref>

Caterham has an online radio station for the community, called Ridge Radio.

Religion

Template:Seealso Caterham has churches representing a variety of Christian denominations. The oldest church remaining in use is the church of St. Lawrence, which was established around 1095. The church has been used by several different denominations, including Quakers and Romanian Orthodox.<ref name=Lawrence>Template:Cite web</ref> It was largely replaced from 1866 onwards, following the consecration of the church of St. Mary the Virgin.<ref name=Mary>Template:Cite web</ref>

As the town in the valley expanded after the railway was built, several churches were founded. Caterham United Reformed Church was built by nonconformists in 1863,<ref name=URC>Template:Cite web</ref> followed by the Church of St. John the Evangelist in 1881.<ref name=JohnListing>Template:Cite web</ref>

Notable people

The television presenter Angus Deayton grew up in Caterham, he attended both Oakhyrst Grange and Caterham Schools.<ref name=Deayton>Template:Cite news</ref> Notable sportspeople from Caterham include the footballer Nicky Forster and Dar Lyon, first class cricketer, both of whom were born in the town. Actors Bill Nighy and Jon Finch were born in Caterham; Michael Robbins, another actor, died there.

See also

  • London Defence Positions

References

Template:Reflist

External links

Template:Tandridge