Chaldon

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Template:Use dmy dates Template:Use British English Template:Infobox UK place Chaldon is a high village in Surrey, England on the North Downs immediately west of Caterham. Chaldon is centred Template:Convert WSW of Caterham on the Hill, Template:Convert south of London and falls within the boundaries of Tandridge district, just south of the border with the London Borough of Croydon

History

Etymology and Dark Ages

Chalvedune is the first written record of the place in 675 AD, meaning the hill (down) where calves were pastured, in a grant of land to Chertsey Abbey.<ref name=booklet>Chaldon Explored, Appraisal on the Designation of Chaldon's Conservation Area: www.tandridge.gov.uk/Tandridge%20District%20Council/Planning/ChaldonExplored[1].pdf Tandridge District Council</ref> Prior to this period of human history, White Hill on the borders of Chaldon and Caterham has yielded neolithic flints.<ref name=malden>Template:Cite web</ref>

The village lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred.<ref name=sl>Template:Cite web</ref>

Middle Ages

In the Domesday Book the manor of Calvedone appears in Wallington hundred rendering £4 to its lord Ralph Fitz Turold holding it as was most of the hundred of Bishop Odo of Bayeux. Prior to the conquest it had been held by the Saxon lord Dernic of King Edward. It consisted of two hides, land for two lord's plough teams and a church. In medieval times the parish included a narrow strip of land below the southern foot of the Downs and a wedge of land to the north of the church that in the 19th century were transferred to Bletchingley and Coulsdon respectively<ref name=booklet/> — these are omitted from this article.

An inscribed stone dedicates a pond for use by residents not animals dated to the late 18th or early 19th century illustrates the lack of water in the village during summer months.<ref name=booklet/> St Catherine's south chancel chapel in the church became devoted to the memory of Christian Hane (d.1752) of an aedicular type with a white stone rectangular panel flanked by Doric pilasters with red marble inlay, swan-neck pediment and crowning shell.<ref name=csp/>

Church of St Peter and St Paul

File:Chaldron st peter & st paul 112.JPG
Detail from the 12th century mural
The church of Saints Peter and Paul (built before 1086 AD) contains a large wall painting of around 1170 depicting images of the ways of salvation and damnation and their result <ref group=lower-alpha>Executed in accordance with a scheme originating in the Eastern church, preserved to us in the 'Guide to Painting of the Greek Church,' as used by the monk-painters of the monasteries of Mount Athos whose title is "The Ladder of the Salvation of the Human Soul and the Road to Heaven"</ref> and is in length 17' 2". Malden in 1911 described it as "perhaps the most interesting ancient wall-painting in England".<ref name=malden/> This Grade I architecturally listed building <ref name=csp>Church of St Peter and St Paul Template:NHLE</ref> retains its west and east walls (of nave and of chancel/chantry) of their original dates, both with "extraordinarily high-pitched" gables, round window in the west and three windows in the east.<ref name=malden/> The mural is divided in two by a cloudy band with the lower half decorated to torments and punishments of the wicked; the upper half devoted to the judgement and salvation of souls. In the centre is a ladder with Jesus Christ above. The main figures include the tree of knowledge, with the serpent (bottom right), the seven deadly sins and a cauldron for boiling murderers. Across the top are depicted the three Marys and the ascent of Elijah and Enoch to heaven, Jesus defeating the devil and Jesus preaching to the spirits in prison.<ref name=csp/>

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Towards the close of the 12th century the south aisle and St Catherine's chapel (to the chancel) (almost entirely rebuilt in the 14th century) in line with it were added, the little lancet in its west wall, with radiating splay, and the two arches opening from the nave the aisle's chief architectural features; and perhaps the later east-facing multi-faceted quatrefoil window the main early feature of the chapel.<ref name=malden/>

In about 1220 the similar narrow aisle to the north was built; visitors can see its 1330-built windows, and a corresponding chapel was of this date which is no longer existing except its entrance arch.<ref name=malden/>

Only in 1870–1 was a general restoration of the church was effected when the wonderful painting covering the entire width of the west wall of the nave was brought to light and preserved. Unhappily, a figure of a demon on the respond of the north arcade was destroyed by the workmen. It seems to have had some relation to the west wall's mural.<ref name=malden/>

Post industrial revolution

Under Rev. James Legrew, the tithes were commuted for £335. 11s 3d, however as rector retaining a glebe of 31 acres, with a glebe house. A tower and spire were added to the church in 1843<ref name=sl/> from a bellcote before.<ref name=malden/> Given its steep, dry landscape on top of the North Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Chaldon did not develop new homes substantially even in the 19th and 20th centuries; though replacements to farmhouses were built in this period. In 1848 the population was 197<ref name=sl/> and in 1901 the population in 1901 was only 266<ref name=malden/> and it consisted of little more than "the church and six scattered farms".<ref name=booklet/> By 1911 Viscount Hylton connected his farms and cottages with the East Surrey Water Company's mains; otherwise the supply depended upon the shallow wells and ponds, filled in a wet season and empty in a dry one.<ref name=malden/>

Geography

Elevations, Geology and Soil

Chaldon has received by some locals the epithet "Little Switzerland" because of the microclimate resulting in heavier snowfall here than in other parts of the region when there is snow in Winter.Template:Citation needed Caterham-on-the-Hill is centred Template:Convert ENE of Chaldon and London is Template:Convert north.

Local Government

Historical

The civil parish of Chaldon fell within the Reigate Poor Law Union upon its creation in 1837, subsequently coming under control of Reigate Rural Sanitary District from 1875 and Reigate Rural District from 1894 until its abolition in 1933.<ref name=youngs>F. Youngs, Local Administrative Units: Southern England (London: Royal Historical Society, 1979), p. 476</ref> Thereafter it became part of the Caterham & Warlingham Urban District until 1 April 1974 when the major local government reorganisation brought Chaldon under the newly formed Tandridge District.

For the purposes of parliamentary elections, Chaldon became part of the Eastern Division of the Surrey county constituency upon its creation in 1832. It moved to the Mid Division in 1867, to the South Eastern Division in 1885, to the Reigate Division in 1918 and to the East Surrey Division in 1948 where it remains to this day.<ref name=youngs/>

Current authorities

Surrey County Council, headquartered in Kingston, elected every four years, has one representative councillor as follows:

Election Member<ref name=surrey_councillors>Template:Cite web</ref>

Ward

style="background-color: Template:Liberal Democrats (UK)/meta/color" | 2009 John Alexander Orrick "Caterham Hill"; includes in this context only Chaldon.

Chaldon has a representative on Tandridge District Council, headquartered in Oxted:

Election Member Ward
style="background-color: Template:Conservative Party (UK)/meta/color" | 2011 Patrick Cannon Chaldon

Civil Parish

Chaldon's residents can participate in the Civil Parish Council with five parish councillors and the parish clerk.<ref name=cv_councillors>Template:Cite web</ref>

Demography and housing

In 2001, there were 1,821 residents in 639 households of which 18.8% were aged over 65; 4.5% of the population were in full-time further education; 70.9% of all men were economically active whereas 3.2% were unemployed, 5.2% worked part-time; 58.9% of all women were economically active whereas 1.2% were unemployed, 37.7% worked part-time.<ref name=scc>Surrey County Council 2001 collated census statistics</ref>

As to ethnicity, 97.3% of the population identified themselves as being white, 0.5% as mixed, 1.0% as of Indian descent, and 1.5% as other of the three main categories.<ref name=scc/>

In terms of religion, 80.1%% of the population responded as being Christian, 0.6% as Muslim, 2.0% other religions, 11.1% as atheist and 6% declined to answer.<ref name=scc/>

Chaldon's economy is predominantly a service sector economy reflected by the lower end of the official categorisation table of occupation given, compiled from the 2001 census:

Category Number of adults in category in 2001 Percentage of those aged 16–74
Lower supervisory and technical occupations 39 2.9%
Semi-routine occupations 83 6.2%
Routine occupations 39 2.9%<ref name=scc/>

Whereas in this census, 24% of the population worked in lower managerial and professional occupations and 7.9% in higher professional occupations.<ref name=scc/>

2011 Census Homes
Output area Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes shared between households<ref name=ons/>
(Civil Parish) 528 78 22 15 1 0

The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average that was apartments was 22.6%.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares<ref name=ons/>
(Civil Parish) 1,735 644 48.9% 44.4% 472

The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings (plus a negligible % of households living rent-free).

Landmarks

Along the north street, Church Lane is a line of houses ending with the Church Green. Here is a close cluster of five listed buildings including the two most highly ranked listed buildings plus farm outbuildings. This area forms a conservation area. Its booklet with hand-drawn illustrations was produced in 1975, year of European Architectural Heritage.<ref name=booklet/>

Church of St Peter and St Paul

See above.

Chaldon Court

This Grade II* listed timber framed building was built in the 14th century and encased in brick and flnit in the 18th century; its door is of the Tudor period. 1029812 Its large gable ends have a large window housing a third floor, however its extension at a right-angle has instead taller two storeys, slightly lower in height.<ref name=booklet/>

Surrey National Golf Course

Although almost a plateau, the highest part of Chaldon is White Hill, which is overlooks Caterham and south-east London beyond and is occupied by Surrey National Golf Course.

Notes

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References

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External links

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Church

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