Court of Justice of the European Union
| Court of Justice|
of the European Union
|Official emblem of the institution|
|Established||1952 <ref name="Establishment">Template:Cite web</ref>|
The Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU; French: Cour de justice de l'Union européenne) is the institution of the European Union (EU) that encompasses the whole judiciary. Seated in Luxembourg, Luxembourg, it consists of two major courts and a number of specialised courts.
The institution was originally established in 1952 as the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities (as of 1958 the Court of Justice of the European Communities (CJEC)). With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the court changed to its current name.
Its mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" "in the interpretation and application" of the Treaties. The Court reviews the legality of the acts of the institutions of the European Union; ensures that the Member States comply with obligations under the Treaties; and interprets European Union law at the request of the national courts and tribunals.
The Court constitutes the judicial authority of the European Union and, in cooperation with the courts and tribunals of the Member States, it ensures the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law.
The Court of Justice of the European Union consists of two major courts:
- The European Court of Justice (created in 1952), the highest court in the EU legal system;
- The General Court (created in 1988; formerly the Court of First Instance);
In addition to a number of specialised courts, such as the Civil Service Tribunal (created in 2004).
Gunnar Beck, The Legal Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the EU, Hart Publishing (Oxford), 2013.