Template:Infobox Museum The Borghese Gallery (Italian: 'Galleria Borghese') is an art gallery in Rome, Italy, housed in the former Villa Borghese Pinciana. It is a building that was from the first integral with its gardens, nowadays considered quite separately by tourists as the Villa Borghese gardens. The Galleria Borghese houses a substantial part of the Borghese collection of paintings, sculpture and antiquities, begun by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the nephew of Pope Paul V (reign 1605–1621). The Villa was built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese himself, who used it as a villa suburbana, a party villa at the edge of Rome.
Scipione Borghese was an early patron of Bernini and an avid collector of works by Caravaggio, who is well represented in the collection by his Boy with a Basket of Fruit, St. Jerome, Sick Bacchus and others. Other paintings of note include Titian's Sacred and Profane Love, Raphael's Entombment of Christ and works by Peter Paul Rubens and Federico Barocci.
The Casina Borghese lies on the outskirts of seventeenth-century Rome. By 1644, John Evelyn described it as "an Elysium of delight" with "Fountains of sundry inventions, Groves and small Rivulets of Water". Evelyn also described the Vivarium that housed ostriches, peacocks, swans and cranes "and divers strange Beasts". Prince Marcantonio IV Borghese (1730–1800), who began the recasting of the park's formal garden architecture into an English landscape garden, also set out about 1775, under the guidance of the architect Antonio Asprucci, to replace the now-outdated tapestry and leather hangings and renovate the Casina, restaging the Borghese sculptures and antiquities in a thematic new ordering that celebrated the Borghese position in Rome. The rehabilitation of the much-visited villa as a genuinely public museum in the late eighteenth century was the subject of an exhibition at the Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, in 2000, spurred by the Getty's acquisition of fifty-four drawings related to the project.
In 1808, Prince Camillo Borghese, Napoleon's brother-in-law, was forced to sell the Borghese Roman sculptures and antiquities to the Emperor. The result is that the Borghese Gladiator, renowned since the 1620s as the most admired single sculpture in Villa Borghese, must now be appreciated in the Musée du Louvre. The "Borghese Hermaphroditus" is also now in the Louvre.
The Borghese villa was modified and extended down the years, eventually being sold to the Italian government in 1902, along with the entire Borghese estate and surrounding gardens and parkland.
thumb thumb The Galleria Borghese includes twenty rooms across two floors.
The main floor is mostly devoted to classical antiquities of the 1st–3rd centuries AD (including a famous 320-30 AD mosaic of gladiators found on the Borghese estate at Torrenova, on the Via Casilina outside Rome, in 1834), and classical and neo-classical sculpture such as the Venus Victrix. Its decorative scheme includes a trompe l'oeil ceiling fresco in the first room, or Salone, by the Sicilian artist Mariano Rossi makes such good use of foreshortening that it appears almost three-dimensional.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini at the Borghese
Many of the sculptures are displayed in the spaces they were intended for, including many works by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which comprise a significant percentage of his output of secular sculpture, starting with early works such as the Goat Amalthea with Infant Jupiter and Faun (1615) and Aeneas, Anchises & Ascanius (1618–19) <ref>Web Gallery of Art, image collection, virtual museum, searchable database of European fine arts (1100-1850)</ref> <ref>Web Gallery of Art, image collection, virtual museum, searchable database of European fine arts (1100-1850)</ref> to his dynamic Rape of Proserpine (1621–22), Apollo and Daphne (1622–25) <ref>Apollo and Daphne by BERNINI, Gian Lorenzo</ref> and David (1623) <ref>Web Gallery of Art, image collection, virtual museum, searchable database of European fine arts (1100-1850)</ref> which are considered seminal works of baroque sculpture. In addition, several portrait busts are inncluoded in the gallery, including one of Pope Paul V, and two portraits of one of his early patrons, Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1632).<ref>Bust of Scipione Borghese by BERNINI, Gian Lorenzo</ref> The second Scipione Borghese portrait was produced after the a large crack was discovered in the marble of the first version during its creation.
The National Museum of Musical Instruments
This collection is made up of instruments from not only western cultures but also instruments from ancient cultures (such as Egyptian, Greek, and Roman) and instruments from America, Africa, and Oceania. The bulk of the collection was donated by opera singer Evan Gorga and it is the largest collection ever given to the museum.<ref>National Museum of Musical Instruments</ref>
Also in Villa Borghese gardens or nearby are the Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Moderna, which specialises in 19th- and 20th-century Italian art, and Museo Nazionale Etrusco, a collection of pre-Roman objects, mostly Etruscan, excavated around Rome.
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Truth Unveiled by Time by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1645-1652
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Pauline Bonaparte by Antonio Canova.
Apollo and Daphne by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1622
Rape of Proserpina by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1621
Melissa by Dosso Dossi. c. 1507
Saint Jerome by Caravaggio. c. 1606
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Deposition by Raphael. c. 1507
- Jacopo da Ponte - The Last Supper - WGA01433.jpg
The Last Supper by Jacopo Bassano. c. 1546
- Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - St John the Baptist - WGA04196.jpg
St. John the Baptist by Caravaggio. c. 1610
- Madonna and Child with St. Anne-Caravaggio (c. 1605-6).jpg
Madonna, Child and Serpent by Caravaggio. c. 1605-1606
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Danae by Correggio. c. 1530
- Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - Boy with a Basket of Fruit - WGA04074.jpg
Boy with a Basket of Fruit by Caravaggio. c. 1593
- Domenichino - Diana and her Nymphs - WGA06390.jpg
Diana and Her Nymphs by Domenichino. c. 1616-1617
- Titian - The Scourging of Christ - WGA22826.jpg
The Scourging of Christ by Titian. c. 1560
- Paolo Veronese - St John the Baptist Preaching - WGA24813.jpg
St. John the Baptist by Paolo Veronese. c. 1562
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Deposition by Sisto Badalocchio. c. 1610
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Deposition by Peter Paul Rubens. c. 1602
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The Concert by Gerrit van Honthorst. c. 1626-1630
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Portrait of a Man by Antonello da Messina. c. 1474-1475
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Mourning of the Dead Christ by Ortolano. c. 1522
- Titian - Venus Blindfolding Cupid - WGA22908.jpg
Venus Blindfolding Cupid by Titian. c. 1565
- Lady with unicorn by Rafael Santi.jpg
Lady with a Unicorn by Raphael. c. 1505
- Federico Barocci - Aeneas' Flight from Troy - WGA01283.jpg
Aeneas' Flight from Troy by Frederico Barocci. c. 1598.
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St. Dominic by Titian. c. 1565
- Parmigianino - Portrait of a Man - WGA17040.jpg
Portrait of a Man by Parmigianino. c. 1528
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Susanna and The Elders by Peter Paul Rubens. c. 1607-1608
- Lorenzo Lotto - Madonna and Child with St Ignatius of Antioch and St Onophrius - WGA13663.jpg
Madonna and Child and Saints by Lorenzo Lotto. c. 1508
- Giovanni Bellini - Madonna and Child - WGA01777.jpg
Madonna and Child by Giovanni Bellini. c. 1510
- Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - Sick Bacchus - WGA04072.jpg
Bacchus by Caravaggio. c. 1593
- Gianlorenzo Bernini - Self-Portrait as a Young Man - WGA01971.jpg
Self Portrait by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1623
- Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio - David - WGA04195.jpg
David with Goliath's Head by Caravaggio. c. 1609
- Guido Reni - Moses with the Tables of the Law - WGA19289.jpg
Moses by Guido Reni. c. 1624
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Apollo by Dosso Dossi. c. 1524
Portrait of a Young Man by Raphael. c. 1502
- Official website (English)
- Architecture and gardens on the Villa Borghese or Casino
- Reviews of Galleria Borghese
- Satellite photo — the Galleria Borghese is the villa in the center of the photograph surrounded by landscaped gardens.
- Roman Map of the area with related services