Gardens of Vatican City
The Vatican Gardens (Template:Lang-it) in Vatican City are urban gardens and parks which cover more than half of the Vatican territory in the South and Northeast. There are some buildings, such as Radio Vatican, within the gardens.
The gardens cover approximately Template:Convert which is most of the Vatican Hill. The highest point is Template:Convert above mean sea level. Stone walls bound the area in the North, South and West.
The gardens and parks were established during the Renaissance and Baroque era and are decorated with fountains and sculptures. There are several springs under the earth which as of 2009 are not in use.Template:Citation needed There is a wide variety of flora, and the area is considered a biotope.
There is no general public access, but guided tours are available to limited numbers.
Tradition says that the site of the Vatican Gardens was spread with earth brought from Golgotha by Saint Helena<ref name="MOPlants"/> to symbolically unite the blood of Christ with that shed by thousands of early Christians, who died in the persecutions of Nero.<ref name="MOPlants">Template:Cite web</ref> The gardens date back to medieval times when orchards and vineyards extended to the north of the Papal Apostolic Palace.<ref name="Pellegrino">Template:Cite web</ref> In 1279, Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1277–1280) moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace and enclosed this area with walls.<ref name="Vatican">Template:Cite web</ref> He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum) and a garden (viridarium).<ref name="Vatican"/>
The site received a major re-landscaping at the beginning of the 16th century,<ref name="Pellegrino"/> during the papacy of Julius II.<ref name="Cooperativa">Template:Cite web</ref> Donato Bramante's original design was then split into three new courtyards,<ref name="Cooperativa"/> the Cortili del Belvedere, the "della Biblioteca" and the "della Pigna" (or Pine Cone)<ref name="Pellegrino"/><ref name="Cooperativa"/> in the Renaissance landscape design style. Also in Renaissance style, a great rectangular Labyrinth, formal in design, set in boxwood and framed with Italian stone pines, (Pinus pinea) and cedars of Lebanon, (Cedrus libani).<ref name="MOPlants"/> In place of Nicholas III's enclosure, Bramante built a great rectilinear defensive wall.<ref name="Cooperativa"/>
Today's Vatican Gardens are spread over nearly Template:Convert, they contain a variety of medieval fortifications, buildings and monuments from the 9th century to the present day, set among vibrant flower beds and topiary, green lawns and a Template:Convert patch of forest. There are a variety of fountains cooling the gardens, sculptures, an artificial grotto devoted to Our Lady of Lourdes, and an olive tree donated by the government of Israel.<ref name="NYTimes">Template:Cite web</ref>
- Vatican Climate Forest
- Index of Vatican City-related articles
- Template:Cite book
- Ricci, Corrado. "Vatican: Its History Its Treasures" Contributor Ernesto Begni. © 2003 Published by Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 0-7661-3941-7, ISBN 978-0-7661-3941-1
The initial version is based upon the article :it:Giardini Vaticani of the Italian language edition of Wikipedia. Data concerning the measures of lengths were taken from the article :de:Vatikanische Gärten of the German language edition of Wikipedia.