Template:Infobox military structure Golubac Fortress (Serbian: ????????? ???? or Goluba?ki grad, Hungarian: Galambóc vára, Bulgarian: ???????, Romanian: Cetatea Golub??,) was a medieval fortified town on the south side of the Danube River, 4 km downstream from the modern-day town of Golubac, Serbia. The fortress, which was most likely built during the 14th century, is split into three compounds which were built in stages. It has ten towers, most of which started square, and several of which received many-sided reinforcements with the advent of firearms.
Golubac Fortress has had a tumultuous history. Prior to its construction it was the site of a Roman settlement. During the Middle Ages, it became the object of many battles, especially between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. It changed hands repeatedly, passing between Turks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Serbs, and Austrians, until 1867, when it was turned over to the Serbian Knez, Mihailo Obrenovi? III. Now, it is a popular tourist attraction in the region and a sightseeing point on Danube boat tours.
Golubac, in the Brani?evo District of north-eastern Serbia and on the modern-day border with Romania, marks the entrance to the ?erdap national park. It is strategically located on the embankment of the Danube River where it narrows to form the Iron Gate gorge,<ref name=ntos>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=YUTA>Template:Cite web</ref> allowing for the regulation and taxation of traffic across and along the river.<ref name=dons>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=beo>Template:Cite web</ref> In the Middle Ages, this was done with the aid of a strong chain connected to Babakaj, a rock on the far side of the river.
Golubac's early history is uncertain. Inscriptions and evidence of older defensive structures in the area show the presence of a Roman settlement, sometimes named "Columbaria,"<ref name=ban>Template:Cite web</ref> long before the creation of Golubac.<ref name=ban/><ref name=dejan>Template:Cite web</ref> From 803 to 1018, the area belonged to the First Bulgarian Empire, to Byzantium from then until 1193, and the Second Bulgarian Empire until 1257. The area remained in Bulgarian hands from then until the Ottoman conquest in the 15th century, with control of the region changing many times between Hungarians, Bulgarians and Serbs before then. It is also unclear whether the medieval fortress was built by Bulgarians, Serbs or Hungarians,<ref name=dons/><ref name=dejan/> or how many towers it had originally. However, an Orthodox chapel built as part of one tower shows that it, at least, was built by a local noble. There is also uncertainty about when construction started, although it is generally agreed that the majority of the fortress was built early in the 14th century.<ref name=ntos/><ref name=YUTA/><ref name=beo/>
The first known record of Golubac is in Hungarian sources from 1335, when it was occupied by Hungarian military.<ref name=dejan/> Sometime between 1345 and 1355, Serbian Tsar Stefan Dušan toured the Brani?evo region, which was part of Serbia. He also visited Golubac, which was under the command of Castellan Toma, Voivode of Transylvania.<ref name=dejan/> After Dušan's death, the House of Rastislali? gained influence in Brani?evo, later winning independence. According to Serbian chroniclers, Knez Lazar evicted the last Rastislali? feudal lord, Radi? Brankovi?, in 1379, then presented outlying villages to monasteries in Wallachia.<ref name=dejan/> By the time of the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Golubac was held by Serbia. It is unclear when or how it changed hands, though one source puts it later than 1382.<ref name=dejan/> After the battle, the fortress was lost to Sultan Bayezid I, marking the first possession by the Ottoman Empire. In 1391, Golubac switched hands twice. Hungarian Timi?oaran Comes Péter Perényi won it, but shortly afterwards lost it again to the Turks.<ref name=ban/> Later, it returned once again to the Kingdom of Hungary.
The first extended Serbian possession of Golubac began in 1403 when Sigismund, King of Hungary, ceded it as a personal fiefdom to Despot Stefan Lazarevi? after he became a Hungarian vassal. When the issue of Stefan's successor came up in 1426, he and Sigismund met in May in Tata to discuss it. A contract was written stating that Sigismund would accept ?ura? Brankovi? as successor on the condition that Golubac, Belgrade, and Ma?va were returned to Hungary when Stefan died.<ref name=rastko>Template:Cite book</ref><ref name=histgeo>Template:Cite web</ref><ref name=varna>Template:Cite book</ref> After Stefan's death in 1427, Sigismund hurried to have the clauses of the Tata contract fulfilled, and Belgrade and Ma?va were handed over without a problem. However, Golubac's commander, Voivode Jeremija, demanded a compensation of 12,000 ducats.<ref name=rastko/> When Sigismund refused to pay, Jeremija handed Golubac to the Turks,<ref name=rastko/><ref name=histgeo/><ref name=varna/> who turned it into the pasha's residence.
Despite gaining Golubac, Sultan Murad II was not pleased with the increased Hungarian influence elsewhere in Serbia, so he sent his army to attack. One squad came from Golubac and targeted nearby Serbian and Hungarian settlements in the Brani?evo region.<ref name=rastko/> In response, ?ura? personally travelled to Golubac, promising forgiveness to Jeremija and urging him to return the fortress by any means possible. The Voivode refused, and attacked the Despot when he and his escort attempted to enter the walls.<ref name=rastko/> These betrayals were followed in 1428 by the Battle of Golubac.<ref name=ban/>
Around April 1428, Sigismund amassed an army of 25,000 infantry, 6,000 Wallachian archers led by Prince Dan II,<ref name=rohis>Template:Cite web</ref> 200 Italian artillery, and a number of Polish cavalry on the far side of the Danube, then attacked Golubac and the Turks.<ref name=ban/> He also had ships attacking from the river,<ref name=rastko/> one of which was commanded by Cecília Rozgonyi wife of Timi?oaran Comes István Rozgonyi.<ref name=ban/> Murad rushed to help the besieged Turks, arriving in late May.<ref name=rastko/> Sigismund, who did not wish to fight the bigger army, finalised a treaty by early June.<ref name=rastko/> Once part of the Hungarian army had withdrawn to the far side of the river, however, the Turkish commander Sinan Bey attacked their rear,<ref name=rastko/> capturing and killing those who remained,<ref name=ban/> among them the Polish knight Zawisza Czarny. Sigismund was nearly caught with the rest of his army;<ref name=rastko/> the intervention of Cecília Rozgonyi is solely responsible for his rescue.<ref name=ban/><ref name=bovill>Template:Cite book</ref><ref name=hahn>Template:Cite book</ref>
During this and other fights resulting from Stefan's death, southern and eastern Serbia, including the Monastery of Daljša near Golubac, suffered heavily. It was after this fighting, however, that Sigismund was first referred to as "our Emperor", in the memoir of a Daljšan monk, in contrast to the Turkish "pagan emperor".<ref name=rastko/>
The Ottoman Empire retained control of Golubac throughout its occupation of the Serbian Despotate. After years of fighting, which resulted in the Hungarian army expelling the Ottomans from Serbia, the Peace of Szeged restored the Despotate late in the summer of 1444. Included in the redefined territory, after much discussion, was Golubac Fortress.<ref name=FMKH>Template:Cite book</ref> However, the Turks once again conquered it after the death of ?ura? Brankovi? in 1456. In 1458, Matthias Corvinus of Hungary regained the fortress,<ref name=nndb>Template:Cite web</ref> but lost it to Mehmed II that same year.<ref name=jstor>Template:Cite journal</ref>
The years 1481–82 led to more fighting between the Hungarians and Turks. During the fall of 1481, while Golubac was held by the Ottoman Empire, Timi?oaran Comes Pál Kinizsi undertook an expedition against the Turks in the Temes area.<ref name=mih>Template:Cite web</ref> On November 2, 1481,<ref name=mih/> he turned his army of 32,000 men south towards the Danube,<ref name=ban/> pushing to Kruševac.<ref name=mih/> At Golubac, a thousand Turkish cavalry were killed or taken prisoner, 24 ships were sunk, and Mihalo?lu ?skender Bey, pasha of Ottoman-held Smederevo and leader of the Turkish army, was beheaded at the gate by Jakši?, one of Kinizsi's men.<ref name=ban/> The Turks were forced to retreat and leave the fortress behind. Kinizsi's foray was only a raid, however, and shortly after he returned to Temes. The Turks, who had suffered heavily but did not lose any land, retook Golubac and quickly improved its fortifications.<ref name=mih/>
Golubac was held by the Habsburg Monarchy between 1688 and 1690 and 1718 and 1739. Serb rebels controlled it during Ko?ina Krajina in 1788–91, and again from 1804–13, during the First Serbian Uprising. Afterwards, it fell back under Ottoman control until 1867 when it, along with Kalemegdan and other towns in Serbia, was given to Knez Mihailo of Serbia.
In recent years
From the late 19th century into the early mid-20th century, bloodsucking flies sometimes referred to as "Golubac mosquitoes" thrived in the area. They were particularly dangerous to livestock, some years killing off entire herds of cattle.<ref name=ban/><ref name=bovill/><ref name=hahn/> After World War I, a road was constructed that went through both of the fort's portcullises. This road is the shortest link between Serbia and eastern parts of the Balkan peninsula. Between 1964–72, a hydroelectric dam was built in the Iron Gate gorge, significantly elevating the river's water level. As a result, the lower edge of the slope and corresponding parts of the fortress are now flooded.<ref name=ban/>
From the beginning of the 21st century, much of the fort has been overgrown, making most of the sections higher on the hill inaccessible. During the spring of 2005, a public project to restore the fort was started. Most of the plants were removed and certain parts, like the fountain in the moat raised in honour of knight Zawisza Czarny, were repaired. The walls, towers and stone stairs are in good condition, but the wooden floors and steps have rotted out, making most of the upper floors impassable. Golubac has also gained popularity as a tourist attraction. Two key reasons are the major road that passes through it, and its proximity to Lepenski Vir, making the two locales a touristic whole.
Golubac consists of three main compounds guarded by 10 towers and 2 portcullises, all connected by fortress walls 2–3 metres thick.<ref name=dons/><ref name=beo/> In front of the fortress, the forward wall (I) doubled as the outer wall of the moat,<ref name=beo/> which connected to the Danube and was likely filled with water. A settlement for common people was situated in front of the wall.<ref name=dons/>
As is the case with many fortresses, Golubac's structure was modified over time. For years, there were only five towers. Later, four more were added.<ref name=dons/><ref name=smed>Template:Cite web</ref> The towers were all built as squares, a sign of the fortress' age, showing that battles were still fought with cold steel. Once firearms came into use, the Turks fortified the western towers with cannon ports and polygonal or cylindrical reinforcements up to two metres thick.<ref name=beo/> After the Hungarian raid in 1481,<ref name=mih/> they added the final tower, complete with cannon embrasures and galleries.<ref name=dons/>
The upper compound (A) is the oldest part of the fortress. It includes the citadel (tower 1) and the Serbian Orthodox chapel (tower 4). Although it remains uncertain, the chapel has led many to believe that this section was built by a Serbian noble.
Later, during either Serbian or Hungarian rule, the fortress was expanded to include the rear and forward compounds.
The rear compound (D) is separated from the upper compound by both a wall connecting towers 2 and 4, and a steep rock 3–4 metres high. Next to tower 5 is a building (VII) which was probably used as a military barracks and for ammunition storage.
The forward compound was split into lower (C) and upper (B) parts by a wall linking towers 4 and 7. The entrance (II) is in the lower part, guarded by towers 8 and 9. Tower 8 has, in turn, been fortified with a cannon port. Opposing the entrance was a second portcullis that led to the rear compound. Along the path was a ditch 0.5 metres wide and 0.75 metres deep which then became a steep decline. At the outer end of the lower part, and connected to the 9th tower with a low wall, is tower 10, which the Turks added to act as a lower artillery tower. It controlled passage along the Danube and guarded the entrance to the harbour, which was probably situated between towers 5 and 10. There are remains connected to tower 8 which probably formed a larger whole with it, but the lower part did not otherwise contain buildings.
In the wall that separated the upper and lower parts was a gate that led to the upper part. The upper part did not have buildings, but there remains a pathway to the stairs up to gate IV, which is 2 metres off the ground, right next to tower 3.
The first nine towers are 20–25 metres high.<ref name=dons/><ref name=beo/> In all ten towers, the floors and stairs inside were made of wood, while external stairs were made of stone. Half of the towers (1, 2, 4, 5, 10) have all four sides and are completely made of stone, while the other half (3, 6, 7, 8, 9) lack the side facing the interior of the fort.
Tower 1, nicknamed "Hat Tower" (Šešir-kula),<ref name=smed/> is one of the oldest towers, and doubles as citadel and dungeon tower. It has an eight-sided base with a circular spire rising from it and a square interior. The next tower to the west, tower 2, is completely circular in shape. The third tower has a square base, with the open side facing the dungeon tower to the north. On the top floor is a terrace that overlooks the Danube and the entrance to the Iron Gate gorge. Down the slope from tower 3 is tower 4, which also has a square base. The ground floor has a Serbian Orthodox chapel that was built into the tower, rather than being added later. The last tower along this wall, tower 5, is the only tower to remain completely square.
The top tower along the front wall of the forward compound, tower 6, has a square base which was reinforced with a six-sided foundation. Working west, the square base of tower 7 was reinforced with a circular foundation. Tower 8, on the upper side of the front portcullis, has an irregular, but generally square, base. It is also the shortest of the first nine towers. Guarding the other side is tower 9, which has a square base reinforced by an eight-sided foundation.
The last tower is the cannon tower. It has only one floor and is the shortest of all ten towers. It was built with an eight-sided base and cannon ports to help control traffic on the Danube. Tower 10 is almost identical to the three artillery towers added to Smederevo fortress.
Considering the age and location of the Golubac Fortress, it is both large and well-preserved. Its placement at the head of the Iron Gate gorge allowed for easy control of river traffic.<ref name=dons/><ref name=beo/> It was the last military outpost on that stretch of the Danube river, which caused it to frequently be part of the final line of defense between Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, especially during the periods when Serbia was Ottoman-held.<ref name=varna/> The importance of the fortress is further indicated by the attention it received from Sigismund and Murad II, rather than just fighting between locals and commanders of nearby cities. The Golubac Fortress was declared a Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and it is protected by the Republic of Serbia.
- Vršac Castle
- List of fortresses in Serbia
- Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance
- Tourism in Serbia
- The information in the Architecture and In recent years sections is from the Serbian page.
- Uncited information in the remaining sections is from either the Serbian page or the German page, and much of it overlapped.
- The main author of the Serbian page said it is based on Aleksandar Deroko, "Srednjevekovni gradovi u Srbiji, Crnoj Gori i Makedoniji", Belgrade 1950 and Aleksandar Deroko, "Medieval Castles on the Danube", Belgrade 1964.
- The main author of the German page said it is based on Istorija srpskog naroda (u šest knjiga), druga knjiga; Srpska književna zadruga, drugo izdanje, Beograd 1994 (History of the Serbs (in six books), second book; Serbian authors society, second edition, Belgrade 1994), which is a different edition of the book in citation<ref name=rastko/> below.