Template:Distinguish Template:Refimprove Template:Infobox UK place Hayes is a town in west London in the London Borough of Hillingdon. It is a suburban development situated Template:Convert west of Charing Cross. Hayes was developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries as an industrial locality to which residential districts were later added in order to house factory workers. Its development was typical of the Second Industrial Revolution – the creation of new light engineering industries on the edge of existing cities. Hayes has a very long history, though, as the place-names of the area indicate.
The place-name Hayes comes from the Anglo-Saxon H?s or H?se: "(land overgrown with) brushwood".
Until the end of the 19th century, Hayes was primarily an agricultural and brickmaking area. However, because of its location on the Grand Junction Canal (later called the Grand Union) and the Great Western Railway it had a number of advantages as an industrial location in the late 19th century. It was because of this proximity that the Hayes Development Company offered sites on the north side of the railway, adjacent to the canal.
Hayes has, over the years, been heavily involved with industry, both local and international, having been the home of EMI, Nestlé and H. J. Heinz Company. Past companies include Fairey Aviation (later merged with Westland), and HMV.
An early occupier was the Gramophone Company, later His Master's Voice and latterly EMI. Only the EMI archives and some early reinforced concrete factory buildings (notably one  by Evan Owen Williams, later knighted) remain as The Old Vinyl Factory.
It was here in the Central Research Laboratories (generally known as "CRL") that Isaac Shoenberg developed (1934) the all-electronic 405-line television system (called the Marconi-EMI system, used by the BBC from 1936 until closedown of the Crystal Palace 405-line transmissions in 1985).
Alan Blumlein carried out his research into binaural sound and stereo gramophone recording here. "Trains at Hayes Station" (1935) and "Walking & Talking" are two notable films Blumlein shot in order to demonstrate stereo sound on film. These films are held at the Hayes EMI archive.
In 1939, working alongside the electrical firms A.C. Cossor and Pye, a 60 MHz radar was developed, and from 1941 to 1943 the H2S radar system.
During the 1990s, CRL spawned another technology: Sensaura 3D positional audio. In an echo of Blumlein's early stereo recordings, the Sensaura engineers made some of their first 3D audio recordings at Hayes Station.
During the First World War the EMI factories produced aircraft. Charles Richard Fairey was seconded there for a short time, before setting up his own company, Fairey Aviation, which relocated in 1918 to a large new factory across the railway in North Hyde Road. Over 4,500 aircraft were subsequently produced here but Fairey needed an airfield to test these aircraft and in 1928 secured a site in nearby Heathrow. This became the Great West Aerodrome, but was requisitioned by the Air Ministry in 1944, and initially developed as a heavy bomber base intended for Boeing B-29 Superfortresses but when Second World War ended in 1945, it was taken over by the Ministry of Aviation and became Heathrow Airport.
The Nestlé company located its major chocolate and instant coffee works on the canal, adjacent to the railway east of the station, and it was for many years the company's UK headquarters.
Opposite Nestlé on the other side of the canal, the Aeolian Company and its associates manufactured player pianos and rolls from just before World War I until the Great Depression. That, and the increasing sophistication of the gramophone record market, led to its collapse; its facilities were then exploited by Wall's, a meat processor and ice cream manufacturer.
From the early 1970s to 2003 McAlpine Helicopters Limited and Operational Support Services Limited (later renamed McAlpine Aviation Services Limited) operated from two purpose-built helicopter hangars in Swallowfield Way industrial estate, as the company operated on land already owned by Sir Robert McAlpine. The land on the other side of the Grand Union Canal is called Stockley Park and its buildings were intentionally positioned to allow safe passage for helicopters into the heliport in case of an emergency. Fortunately, this was never used.
Damont Audio was a vinyl pressing plant based in Hayes from the 1970s to 2005. "DAMONT" or "Damont Audio Ltd" is typically inscribed in the run-out groove of vinyl produced at the plant.
Development as a suburb
Following development, industry became pre-eminent in Hayes. The provision of adequate housing did not begin until after World War I, with the creation of dwellings of the garden suburb type.
George Orwell, who adopted this pseudonym while living here, lived and worked in 1932-3 as a schoolmaster at The Hawthorns High School for Boys, situated on Church Road. The school has since closed and is now known as The Fountain House Hotel; the hotel bears a plaque commemorating its distinguished former resident. Despite returning several times,<ref name="Hawthorns">"George Orwell – Teaching"</ref> Orwell was characteristically acerbic about his time in Hayes, camouflaging it lightly as West Bletchley in Coming Up for Air, as Southbridge in A Clergyman's Daughter, and grumbling comically in a letter to author/friend Frank Jellinek:
Hayes . . . is one of the most godforsaken places I have ever struck. The population seems to be entirely made up of clerks who frequent tin-roofed chapels on Sundays and for the rest bolt themselves within doors.<ref name="Orwell">Homage to Catalonia, p. 2, and the letter to Frank Jellinek of 20 December 1938, Collected Essays I, pp. 363–7.</ref>
Her Majesty The Queen visited Hayes town centre on 19 May 2006 as part of a programme of visits in celebration of her 80th birthday.
thumb St Mary's (a.k.a. St Mary the Virgin) Church on Church Road is the oldest building in Hayes. The central portion of the church, the chancel and the nave, was built in the 1200s, the north aisle in the 1400s (as was the tower), and the south aisle in the 1500s, along with the lychgate and the south porch. Hayes's entry in the Domesday Book (1086) makes no mention of a church or chapel, and the name of St Mary suggests a 12th-century dedication as it was at this time that church dedications in this name first appeared in England.<ref name="Mary">Catherine Kelter, Hayes: A Concise History (Hillingdon Borough Libraries, 1988), 9 & 18.</ref> Besides the church, the other main building in medieval villages was the manor house. The manor house formerly associated with the church was assigned to Canterbury Cathedral by Christian priest Warherdus as far back as 830 AD.<ref name="canterbury">St Mary's information 1</ref> The site of the original manor house is not known, but it is likely to have been on or near the site of the building latterly on Church Road called the Manor House, parts of which dated from the early 16th century. At the time of the Norman Conquest, Archbishop Lanfranc had contacts with the parish. St Mary's has a 12th-century font, and many interesting memorials and brasses. The brass to Robert Lellee, Rector somewhere between 1356 and 1375, is purportedly the oldest brass in Middlesex. Adjacent to it is another to Rector Robert Burgeys (1408–1421). (The first recorded Rector was Peter de Lymonicen ). There are tombs in the church to Walter Grene (1456), Thomas Higate (1576), and Sir Edward Fenner (1611), Judge of the King's Bench. The latter tomb covers earlier tiling on the wall and floors. Some partly uncovered pre-Reformation wall-paintings and a large mural (dating from the 14th century) of Saint Christopher with the infant Child are on the North wall. A brass to Veare Jenyns (1644) relates to the Court of Charles I, while other Jenynses, who were Lords of the Manor, link with Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Judge John Heath, after whom Judge Heath Lane was named, is also buried at St Mary's. Victorian restorers donated a number of windows, and more recent additions include windows to Saints Anselm and Nicholas. The Coronation window is in the north aisle above the Triptych painted by the pre-Raphaelite Edward Fellowes Prynne. His brother George Fellowes Prynne carved the Reredos with St Anselm and St George in the niches. The embossed roof of the Nave reflects the Tudor period with emblems of the crucifixion and the arms of Henry and Aragon (the lands passed to Henry VIII as a consequence of the English Reformation).
St Anselm church, built in 1929 on Station Road in Hayes town centre, is so-named because it is thought that Archbishop (later Saint) Anselm stayed in the manor house of St Mary's church.<ref name="mary">St Mary's information 2</ref>
The Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic church was built in 1961, replacing the earlier church built in 1912. It is situated in Hayes town centre, just off Coldharbour Lane/Station Road. The first permanent building to be built was the adjacent primary school, Botwell House, which opened in 1931. The church's picture of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (which measures 5½m x 3m) was painted by Pietro Annigoni (1910–1988) in Florence, and took nine months to complete.
Secondary schools in Hayes include: Barnhill Community High School, Guru Nanak Sikh Academy, Harlington Community School, Hewens College, Rosedale College, and Parkside Studio College.
Uxbridge College has a Hayes Campus, situated on the former Townfield School site, accessible from Coldharbour Lane.
The station in the area is:
- Hayes and Harlington railway station (First Great Western & Heathrow Connect)
London Buses serving Hayes are:
|140||Harrow Weald||Heathrow Airport||Metroline|
|350||Hayes & Harlington Station||Heathrow Terminal 5||Abellio London|
|696||Bourne Avenue||Bishop Ramsey School||London United|
|697||Hayes Lansbury Drive||Ickenham||London United|
|698||West Drayton Station||Ickenham||London United|
|H98||Hayes End||Hounslow||London United|
|U5||Hayes & Harlington Station||Uxbridge||Metroline|
The area is close to junctions 3 and 4 of the M4 motorway. The A312 is the main north-south route. The A4020 Uxbridge Road is the main West-East route passing directly through Hayes.
The Grand Union Canal runs through Hayes. Travellers by boat may moor at Hayes and take advantage of its local amenities, such as shops (which include branches of Iceland and Sainsbury's) and banks.
Image Diagnostic Technology Ltd managed by Miss A.Patel operates their UK offices at Hyde Park Hayes 3
The United Kingdom office of China Airlines operates from Hyde Park, Hayes.
Rackspace operates their UK offices from Hyde Park, Hayes.
The newly created business Plumbase Industrial, owned by Grafton plc, operates their HQ and inaugural branch from Stewart Quay in Printing House Lane, Hayes.
Hayes's Beck Theatre opened in 1977, and offers a wide range of touring shows in a welcoming modern building. The Beck is very much a community theatre, offering one-night concerts, comedy, drama, films, opera, and pantomime.
Hayes's Botwell Green Library is situated in the Botwell Green Leisure Centre (address: East Avenue, UB3 2HW), which in 2010 replaced both the old Hayes Library (opened 1933 on Golden Crescent) and the old swimming baths (opened 1967 on Central Avenue). The old swimming baths building remained derelict following its 2010 closure, until Hillingdon Council demolished it in late 2012 having first given itself planning permission for a housing scheme on the site.
Public houses in Hayes include: The Botwell Inn, The Bootlaces, The Old Crown (Station Road), Ye Olde Crowne (Uxbridge Road), The Adam and Eve (the town's earliest recorded inn, dating from 1665), The Grapes, The Carpenter's Arms, The Angel, and The Wishing Well.
Other cultural amenities include some very good parks and gardens, including: Barra Hall Park, Lake Farm Country Park, Minet Country Park, and the Norman Leddy Memorial Gardens. Council leader Raymond Puddifoot had given a promise that green-belt land in Hillingdon would be safe on his watch: "I can give a categoric assurance that under this adminsitration we will never see a threat to the green belt." In August 2012, however, Mr Puddifoot announced plans to build on green-belt (and longtime common land) site Lake Farm. In January 2013, a GLA report put Hillingdon Council's plan to build on Lake Farm in jeopardy; Transport for London predicted major congestion and bus-service disruption. On Tuesday 5 March 2013, in a stormy council meeting, the Conservative majority of Hillingdon Council's planning committee members dismissed the discontent of residents in the south of the borough and hurriedly rubber-stamped the application to build on Lake Farm Country Park.
Hayes FM (91.8 FM) is the town's community-focused, non-commercial local radio station. The station provides a platform for discussion of matters concerning local people, and besides playing popular music caters musically to a variety of tastes and genres, including indie rock and urban music.
Hayes & Yeading United F.C. formed on 18 May 2007, following a merger of the former Hayes F.C. and Yeading F.C. Hayes & Yeading presently play at the Kingfield Stadium in Woking, Surrey (GU22 9AA), having agreed a groundshare with Woking F.C.
The former Hayes F.C. started out as Botwell Mission in 1909, taking the name Hayes F.C. in 1929. The team's home stadium was on Church Road, Hayes. The Church Road stadium continued in May 2007 as Hayes & Yeading's ground until 19 April 2011, when the team played at Church Road for the last time, beating Gateshead 3–1. The former Church Road ground was demolished in 2011, and is now the site of housing. The Church Road ground saw the start of the career of a number of players who went on to play at higher levels, among them Les Ferdinand and Cyrille Regis.
Hayes has a second Non-League football team, A.F.C. Hayes; they were known until 2007 as Brook House F.C.
- Frank Allen, bass player of sixties pop groups Cliff Bennett and the Rebel Rousers and The Searchers, was born in Hayes
- Writer and so-called "godfather of alternative comedy" Tony Allen was born in Hayes
- Anselm of Canterbury, later Saint Anselm, was stationed in Hayes by King William II in 1095
- Buster Bloodvessel, frontman of eighties pop group Bad Manners, lives on a canal boat in Hayes
- Robin Bush (1943–2010) of Channel 4's archaeological series Time Team was born in Hayes
- Composer William Byrd (1539/40-1623), "the father of English music", lived as a Catholic recusant in Hayes and Harlington 1578–88; a primary school in the area bears his name
- Brian Connolly (1945–1997), singer of glam rock band The Sweet, lived in Hayes and Harefield
- Disgraced disc jockey Chris Denning was born in Hayes
- Actress Anne Marie Duff - best known for playing Fiona Gallagher in Shameless and Elizabeth I in The Virgin Queen - grew up in Hayes, attending Mellow Lane School
- Greg Dyke, former BBC director general and current chairman of the FA, grew up in Hayes
- Pioneer in photography B. J. Edwards (1838–1914) lived at Wistowe House (which dates from the 17th century) on Church Road
- Chris Finnegan (1944–2009), Olympic boxing gold medalist, lived in Hayes
- Boxer Kevin Finnegan (1948–2008), brother of Olympic gold medalist Chris, lived in Hayes
- Actor Barry Foster (1927–2002), best known as 1970s TV detective Van der Valk, grew up in Hayes
- Musician Paul Gardiner (1958–1984) of Gary Numan's Tubeway Army was born in Hayes
- Major-General James Grant, C.B. (1778–1852), who served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo, was a lifelong Hayes resident
- Celebrity tailor Doug Hayward (1934–2008) grew up in Hayes
- England footballer Glenn Hoddle was born in Hayes
- Golfer Barry Lane was born in Hayes
- Honey Lantree, celebrated female drummer of Joe Meek-produced sixties pop group The Honeycombs, was born in Hayes
- New York Times best-selling author Tony Lee was born in Hayes
- Author George Orwell (1903–1950) lived and worked in Hayes, 1932-3
- Malcolm Owen (d. 1980) and Paul Fox (d. 2007) of punk band The Ruts grew up in Hayes
- Larry Page, sixties manager of pop groups The Kinks and The Troggs, was born in Hayes
- Steve Priest, bass player of glam rock band The Sweet, was born in Hayes
- Jane Seymour, actress and Bond girl, was born in Hayes
- Nick Simper, founding member of rock band Deep Purple, lived in Hayes
- Composer Stephen Storace (1762–1796), famous in his day and a friend of Mozart, lived from the late 1780s in Wood End, Hayes
- Prebendary and philanthropist Dr Thomas Triplett (1602–1670) was a schoolmaster in Hayes during the Commonwealth period; a primary school in the area bears his name
- David Westlake, singer/songwriter of indie band The Servants, was born in Hayes
- Welsh international footballer Rhoys Wiggins grew up in Hayes
- Football player/manager/pundit Ray Wilkins grew up in Hayes
- Business Man/ Paul V Byron was born in Hayes, attended Dr Triplett school 1964
- West Drayton
- Large collection of photos of Hayes & Harlington
- HayesMiddlesex.com - Local website about Hayes & Harlington
- Hayes People's History
- 3rd Hayes (St Mary's) Scout Group
- Memories of Mellow Lane School Girls' Choir, Hayes
- Sir Evan Owen Williams