Hospices de Beaune
The Hospices de Beaune or Hôtel-Dieu de Beaune is a former charitable almshouse in Beaune, France. It was founded in 1443 by Nicolas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy, as a hospital for the poor. The original hospital building, the Hôtel-Dieu, one of the finest examples of French fifteenth-century architecture, is now a museum. Services for patients are now provided in modern hospital buildings.
An important charity wine auction is held in November each year (formerly in the great hall of the Hôtel-Dieu).
The Hôtel-Dieu was founded on 4 August 1443, when Burgundy was ruled by Duke Philip the Good. The Hundred Years' War had recently been brought to a close by the signing of the Treaty of Arras in 1435. Massacres, however, continued with marauding bands (écorcheurs) still roaming the countryside, pillaging and destroying, provoking misery and famine. The majority of the people of Beaune were declared destitute. Nicolas Rolin, the Duke's Chancellor, and his wife Guigone de Salins, responded by deciding to build a hospital and refuge for the poor.
The Hospices de Beaune received the first patient on 1 January 1452. Elderly, disabled and sick people, with orphans, women about to give birth and the destitute have all been uninterruptedly welcomed for treatment and refuge, from the Middle Ages until today.
Over the centuries, the hospital radiated outwards, grouping with similar establishments in the surrounding villages of Pommard, Nolay, Meursault. Many donations - farms, property, woods, works of art and of course vineyards - were made to it, by grateful families and generous benefactors. The institution is one of the best and oldest example of historical, philanthropic, and wine-producing heritage, and has become linked with the economic and cultural life of Burgundy.
The interior's rectangular format makes it the best location to admire the different buildings, three of which are decorated with a glazed-tile roof. This technique probably has its origins in Central Europe (possibly from ceramics master Miklós Zsolnay of Pécs, Hungary) but quickly became a landmark of the architecture from Burgundy (other glazed-tiled roofs could be observed in Dijon for instance). These tiles have four colours (red, brown, yellow and green) with interlaced designs. The current tiles were recreated between 1902 and 1907. The Northern, Eastern and Western buildings include a two-level gallery with stone columns on the ground floor and wood beams on the first floor. Many dormer and attic windows can be observed with finely detailed wood and iron works. A well with gothic ironwork can also be seen in the centre of the courtyard.
The Room of the Poors measures 50x14x16 meters. On the ceiling, the exposed painted frame is in an upside down boat-skiff shape and in each beam are sculpted caricatures of some important Beaune inhabitants. On the floor tiling are written Nicolas Rolin's monogram and his motto "Seulle" referring to his wife, Guigone de Salins. The room is furnished with two rows of curtained beds. The central area was set up with benches and tables for meals. The pieces of furniture were brought together in 1875 by the son in law of the architect Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Each bed could welcome two patients.
Following the large ward is the Chapel. The place for the chapel was chosen to allow the bedridden to attend Mass from their beds. Originally this was in the chapel polyptych the Flemish painter Rogier van der Weyden. The remains of the Guigone Salins are buried here. In November 2010 the very first Catholic wedding since the construction of the building in 1443 was performed here. The wedding was between Mr Alessandro Conti and Miss Natalie Kunert.
The hospice possesses many artistic treasures, among them the mural paintings of the 17th century in the Salle St Hugues and an altarpiece, The Last Judgment, painted by van der Weyden.
The charity auction been arranged annually since 1851, taking place on the third Sunday in November amid a three-day festival devoted to the food and wines of Burgundy called Les Trois Glorieuses.<ref name=ocw>winepros.com.au, The Oxford Companion to Wine Hospices de Beaune</ref> The charity is preceded by a black tie dinner at the Clos de Vougeot on day one and followed by the lunch La Paulée de Meursault on day three. The Domaine des Hospices de Beaune is a non-profit organisation which owns around Template:Convert of donated vineyard land, much of this classified Grand and Premier cru.<ref name =chr/> With bidding by professional and private buyers, the barrels, from 31 cuvées of red wine and 13 of white wine, attain prices usually well in excess of the current commercial values, although the results give some indication of the trend in expected bulk wine prices for the vintage from the rest of the region.<ref name=ocw/><ref name =chr>Christies.com Hospices de Beaune</ref>
The auction has been organised by Christie's since 2005, setting a record total figure at the 149th auction in 2009 when 799 barrels were up for sale, and 40% bids by telephone, internet or fax connecting some 500 participants from around the world, the auction has in recent years evolved from a wholesale market to a retail market.<ref name= dc>Kakaviatos, Panos, Decanter.com (November 16, 2009).Hospices de Beaune nudges 2000 record</ref><ref name= ws>Sanderson, Bruce, Wine Spectator (November 16, 2009). Prices Up 20 Percent at the 149th Hospices de Beaune Auction</ref>
- Gotti, Laurent (2009). Hospices de Beaune, The saga of a Winemaking Hospital. Editions Féret. ISBN 978-2-35156-048-8