Karlstadt am Main
Karlstadt is a town in the Main-Spessart district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany. It is the Main-Spessart district seat (Kreisstadt).
The locals often call the town, in their own dialect, Karscht or Karscht am Mee (Karlstadt am Main). The townsfolk are called Flaak or Karschter Flaak.
The town lies roughly 25 km north of Würzburg in the Main-Franconian winegrowing region.
As of the amalgamations in 1978, Karlstadt’s Stadtteile are Gambach, Heßlar, Karlburg, Klein Laudenbach, Laudenbach, Mühlbach, Rohrbach, Stadelhofen, Stetten and Wiesenfeld.
From the late 6th to the mid 13th century, over on the other side of the Main, lay the unusually big valley settlement of Karlburg with its monastery and harbour. Its reason for being there was the Karlsburg, a castle perched high over the community that was destroyed only in the German Peasants' War in 1525. In 1202 came the founding of Karlstadt by Bishop Konrad von Querfurt. The exact founding date is unknown. However, given that the founder’s time in office was only four years, the time can be reckoned fairly easily.
The town was methodically laid out with a nearly rectangular plan to defend Würzburg territory against the Counts of Rieneck. The plan is still well preserved today. The streets in the Old Town are laid out much like a chessboard, but for military reasons they are not quite straight.
Karlsburg, Karlstadt, on the other side of the Main
Main Gate with flood gauge, Karlstadt
Main Gate Tower and Main Gate, Karlstadt
In 1225, Karlstadt had its first documentary mention. In 1236 the castle and the village of Karlburg were destroyed in the Rieneck Feud. In 1244, winegrowing in Karlstadt was mentioned for the first time. From 1277 comes the earliest evidence of the town seal. In 1304, the town fortifications were finished. The parish of Karlstadt was first named in 1339. In 1369 a hospital was founded. Between 1370 and 1515, radical remodelling work was being done on the first, Romanesque parish church to turn it into a Gothic hall church. About 1400, Karlstadt became for a short time the seat of an episcopal mint. The former Oberamt of the Princely Electorate (Hochstift) of Würzburg was, after Secularization, in Bavaria’s favour, passed in 1805 to Archduke Ferdinand of Tuscany to form the Grand Duchy of Würzburg, and passed with this to Bavaria.
The town’s longtime Jewish inhabitants built themselves a synagogue at Hauptstraße 24, which was destroyed on Kristallnacht (9 November 1938) by SA men, an event recalled by a plaque at the synagogue’s former site.
The council is made up of 24 council members, not counting the mayor.
(as at municipal election held on 2 March 2008)
Coat of arms
The town’s arms might be described thus: Quarterly, first and fourth azure, second and third argent a fleur-de-lis gules.
The town’s earliest seal, from 1277, showed an effigy of Charlemagne, who is said to have founded and named the town (Charlemagne is called Karl der Große in German). The next seal after this one also bore Charlemagne’s likeness, and this appeared on town seals until the 18th century. However, as of 1544, the town began using a quartered shield as its arms. This is thought to have come from the banner of state borne by the Prince-Bishopric (Hochstift) of Würzburg, to which the town once belonged. The fleurs-de-lis were added in the early 19th century, and they refer to Charlemagne.
Economy and infrastructure
- Karlstadt lies at the junction of two Bundesstraßen, the B 26 and the B 27. On two road bridges, the Old Main Bridge (Alte Mainbrücke) built in 1953 and the more northerly New Main Bridge (Neue Mainbrücke) built in 2005, the river Main can be crossed.
- Further, Karlstadt can be reached by rail and waterway. The small sport airfield has at its disposal a grass track.
- Through the municipal area runs the Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line, north-south. Within town limits lie a section of the Mühlberg Tunnel and part of the Nantenbach Curve.
Crafts and industry
The Düker Ironworks, the Schwenk Cement Works and the Kohl Wood Veneer Factory define the district seat’s south end. Besides these three great industrial plants, many handicraft businesses have also set up shop in Karlstadt. Another big employer is the Main-Spessart Landratsamt (District Council Head’s Office). There are moreover many inhabitants who commute to Würzburg, 25 km away, or Lohr am Main, 18 km away.
Winegrowing has only slight economic importance nowadays but still has great cultural significance. Even if very few people in Karlstadt earn their livelihoods from winegrowing, it is still important for self-perception and the local way of life. Vineyards in Karlstadt are the Roßtal and Im Stein. There are also others in many of the outlying centres, especially in Stetten (Stettener Stein) and on the way from the main town out to Gambach.
As of 1999 the following institutions existed in Karlstadt:
- Kindergartens: 549 places with 548 children
- Primary schools: 5 with 63 teachers and 1,147 pupils
- Gymnasium: 1 with 60 teachers and 923 students
- Realschule with just under 600 students (as of 2004)
- “Piranha” youth cultural centre: with some 1,000 visitors each year
- Johann Schöner (b. 16 January 1477, d. 16 January 1547 in Nuremberg), mathematician, geographer, cartographer, astronomer and astrologist
- Andreas Bodenstein (b. about 1482, d. 24 December 1541 in Basel), also named after his birthplace Karlstadt, or in Latinized form Carolstadius, reformer
- Johann Draconites (b. about 1494, d. 18 April 1566 in Wittenberg), theologian, humanistic philosopher and reformer
- Michael Beuther (b. 18 October 1522, d. 27 October 1587 in Strasbourg), historian, poet, jurist and official
- Johann Rudolph Glauber (b. 10 March 1604 in Karlstadt; d. 16 March 1670 in Amsterdam), apothecary and chemist
- Franz Sperr (b. 12 February 1878, d. 23 January 1945 executed in Berlin-Plötzensee), jurist and member of the Widerstand in the Third Reich
- Bernhard Fech (b. 1887, d. 1915 fell near Soldau in Masuria), painter
- Hermann Sendelbach (b. 1894 in Wiesenfeld-Erlenbach, d. 1971), writer, poet
- Detlef Wagenthaler (b. 1 August 1948 in Aschaffenburg, d. 23 September 2007 in Karlstadt), carnevalist
- Roland Büchner (b. 1954), Regensburg cathedral choirmaster, conductor, leader of the Regensburger Domspatzen
- Ruth Westheimer (b. 4 June 1928 im Wiesenfeld), sexual therapist, later United States citizen.