The London Coliseum (also known as the Coliseum Theatre) is a theatre in St. Martin's Lane, central London, built as one of London's largest and most luxurious ‘family’ variety theatres. Opened on 24 December 1904 as the London Coliseum Theatre of Varieties, the theatre was designed by theatrical architect Frank Matcham (designer of the London Palladium) for impresario Oswald Stoll.<ref name="cinematreasures">Template:Cite web</ref> Their ambition was to build the largest and finest music hall, described as the 'people's palace of entertainment' of its age.<ref name=ArthurLloyd">Template:Cite web</ref> At the time of construction, it was the only theatre in Europe that provided lifts for taking patrons to the upper levels of the theatre, and was the first theatre in England to have a triple revolve installed on its stage.<ref name="cinematreasures"/> It is currently the home of the English National Opera.
The inaugural performance was a variety bill on 24 December 1904.
In 1908, the London Coliseum was host to a cricket match between Middlesex and Surrey.
In 1911, dramatist W. S. Gilbert produced his last play here, The Hooligan.
The theatre changed its name from the London Coliseum to the Coliseum Theatre between 1931 and 1968 when a run of 651 performances of the musical comedy White Horse Inn began on 8 April 1931. It reverted to the original name when the Sadler's Wells Opera Company moved there in 1968. The Company changed its name to the English National Opera in 1974 and bought the freehold of the building for £12.8m.
Beginning on 16 June 1963, the theatre became the second of London's three Cinerama Theatres, initially showing the three-strip Technicolor version for the first 5 months, then showing the 70mm single-strip film until 22 May 1968 when it screened its final movie.<ref name="cinematreasures"/>
It has the widest proscenium arch in London and was one of the first to have electric lighting. It was built with a revolving stage although this was rarely used. The theatre retains many of its original features and was Grade II* listed by English Heritage in September 1960. The design team for the refurbishment included the architects RHWL and Arup for acousticians and building engineers.
The theatre hosted both the 2004 and 2006 Royal Variety Performances. The theatre is also the London base for performances by English National Ballet, who perform regular seasons throughout the year when not on tour.
Owing to the constricted site on which it was constructed the wing space is limited, although the stage depth partly compensates for this. The stage is not raked.
- Earl, John and Michael Sell, Guide to British Theatres 1750-1950, Theatres Trust, 2000 pp. 121–122 ISBN 0-7136-5688-3
- Glasstone, Victor, Victorian and Edwardian Theatres London: Thames and Hudson, 1975
- English National Opera site
- London Theatre Guide with what's on at the London Coliseum
- Theatres trust - London Coliseum page