Template:Refimprove thumb hill.]] Malá Strana (Template:Lang-en, Template:Lang-de) or more officially Menší M?sto pražské (Template:Lang-en) is a district of the city of Prague, Czech Republic, and one of its most historic regions.
In the Middle Ages, it was a dominant center of the ethnic German (and since 16th century also Italian) citizens of Prague.Template:Citation needed It also housed a large number of noble palaces while the right-bank towns were comparatively more bourgeois and more Bohemian Czech.
The name Malá Strana translated into English literally means "Little Side", though it is frequently referred to as "Lesser Town", "Lesser Quarter", or "Lesser Side". This name derives from its position on the left (west) bank of the river Vltava, on the slopes just below the Prague Castle, in opposition to the larger towns of Prague on the right bank, to which it is conjoined by the Charles Bridge.
The town was originally called the New Town beneath the Prague Castle (Template:Lang-cs) after 1257 when it was founded. After Charles IV founded the New Town of Prague in 1348, the town was renamed the Lesser Town of Prague (Template:Lang-cs). In the 17th century the unofficial name Little Quarter (Template:Lang-cs) was first used.<ref name=praha>Template:Cite book</ref>
Malá Strana was founded by the King Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1257.<ref name=praha /> As a royal town (a town founded by the king) it got many privileges. It was created by amalgamating a number of settlements beneath the Prague Castle into a single administrative unit. The original residents were expelled and mostly German craftsmen and merchants were invited by the king. Even though the city was royal, the king did not master the city as a whole.Template:Citation needed
In the second half of the 14th century Malá Strana was extended by the King and Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV.<ref name=praha />
In 1419-1420 Malá Strana was burnt down by Hussites. In 1541 the town was strongly damaged again by a fire. Because of the fire 50 people died. After this fire the town was rebuilt in the Renaissance style and many palaces of nobility were built there.<ref name=praha />
- The market place, now known as Malostranské nám?stí, was a center of the town. Initially, this marketplace was divided on the upper and lower parts with a St. Nicholas Church on border.
- As in most of Prague, the traces of Charles IV developments are seen in Mala Strana, one example is the Hunger Wall.
- In 1541 the finest Charles' City was damaged by fires, and devastating wars. Mala Strana was mostly destroyed.
thumb thumb on the side of Malá Strana]] Baroque architecture predominates in Malá Strana, but the history of the district dates back to far before the Baroque era. Baroque architecture eventually dominated when the style became successfully implanted on Malá Strana after the district was devastated by fires in 1541.
Points of interest
- The most extensive and unforgettable building of the Baroque Era on Malá Strana is the Wallenstein Palace. Albrecht von Wallenstein was a military general-in-chief of Emperor Ferdinand II. Under his order 26 new houses and old gates were built on the freed place. The extensive palace complex with five courtyards and the garden, which is set as a French Park.
- The Churches are the most frequent and interesting developments on Malá Strana. The finest one and the most prominent in the St Nicholas Church. This is a masterpiece of Christoph Dientzenhofer and Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer, father and son. The finest painting inside the church is an apotheosis of St. Nicholas, the defender of children, seamen, and wayfollowers. This painting is set in the dome of the church. It depicts an apotheosis of Saint Trinity.
- The famous statue of the Holy Infant Jesus of Prague is located in the Church of Our Lady Victorious in Malá Strana, Prague. The devotion and the church drew millions of Roman Catholic faithful to Malá Strana throughout the years.
- In 1989, the "Prague Embassy" of West Germany, located in the Palais Lobkowicz, was the site of a drama involving thousands of East German refugees. Their cars were left behind in the quarter.
- The famous Czech novelist Jan Neruda was born, lived in and wrote about Malá Strana; Nerudova Street is named after him.
- The Pet?ín lookout tower is located in Malá Strana.
- Prague, the wayguide. By ARTFOTO printing house, Russian Language Edition.