Miltenberg

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Template:More refs Template:Infobox German Location Miltenberg is the seat of the like-named district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany.

Geography

File:Blick auf Miltenberg.jpg
View from the Main of Miltenberg

Location

Historic Miltenberg lies on the Main’s left bank on the “left knee” of the Mainviereck (“Main Square”) between the Spessart and Odenwald ranges. Since the Main riverbed in the Miltenberg area is relatively near the foot of the Odenwald, only a narrow strip of usable land is left, which in bygone centuries was time and again flooded by the Main. The Old Town, which stands on this land, sustained sometimes considerable damage in these floods. From about the beginning of the 20th century, after buying land from the neighbouring community of Großheubach, Miltenberg has been spreading itself out over on the right bank.

History

File:Miltenberg AltesRathaus Mildenburg 2003.jpg
Historic Old Town and Mildenburg
Even as far back as prehistoric and early historical times, people knew about the strategic importance of the strait at the Main “knee” between the Odenwald and the Spessart, building mighty ringwalls on the Greinberg above Miltenberg and on the Bürgstadter Berg (mountains). About AD 155, the Romans laid down the almost dead straight “Forward Limes” on the Main. Near today’s Miltenberg, the Limes came up against the Main, which from here northwards formed the Roman Empire’s natural border with Germania. Remnants of two Roman castra can be found nearby, one between Miltenberg and Bürgstadt (Kastell Miltenberg-Ost) and the other between Miltenberg and Kleinheubach (Altstadtkastell)
File:Altstadtkastellmiltenberg02.jpg
Computer reconstruction of the Altstadt Kastell.
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Under the protection of the castle of Mildenburg (built about 1200), the town of Miltenberg took hold. It had its first documentary mention in 1237. By about 1379, the two town towers, the Mainz Gate (Mainzer Tor) and the Würzburg Gate (Würzburger Tor) framed in the west and east today’s Old Town, which grew narrow and long between the river and the steep slope. Already by the Middle Ages, Miltenberg bunter was highly sought-after, with things such as grindstones and columns being hewn in the surrounding woods. Even before 1319, the Spital St. Peter (hospital) was founded by Archbishop Peter of Aspelt.

File:Miltenberg De Merian Hassiae.jpg
Miltenberg – Excerpt from the Topographia Hassiae by Matthäus Merian the Younger, 1655
File:HeuneSaeuleMainzHinweisPlatte.png
Inscription on the Heunen-Säule

Until 1803, Miltenberg belonged to Electoral Mainz. This is yet manifested in the town’s coat of arms, which bears the Wheel of Mainz as a charge. After the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, Miltenberg passed to the Principality of Leiningen, with which it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806. After having become part of the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1810, the town finally became part of Bavaria in 1816.

From Miltenberg come the so-called Heunensäulen, some special sandstone columns meant for use more than a thousand years ago when Mainz Cathedral was being built. The master builder, however, decided that they were unneeded and they never became part of the cathedral. One of them now stands in Mainz’s cathedral square, a gift to the city on the occasion of the cathedral’s thousandth anniversary in 1975. It bears an explanatory plaque.

Miltenberg has an historical Old Town featuring many timber-frame houses. In 1912 and 1955, Miltenberg acquired lands over on the Main’s right bank to expand the town.

The castle has been under the town’s ownership since 1979. In 1971, the outside was renovated, beginning a years-long renovation and restoration project. In the castle’s inner ward stands the der Teutonenstein, a 5 m-tall sandstone column whose inscription’s meaning is to this day a puzzle.

In 2006 the town gained national fame through Auxiliary Bishop Ulrich Boom’s 20-minute-long bellringing performance during a National Democratic Party of Germany rally, which disrupted the extreme rightwing party’s proceedings.

Amalgamations

The following centres have been amalgamated into Miltenberg:

  • 1 January 1971: Breitendiel
  • 1 January 1976: Mainbullau
  • 1 January 1976: Schippach (with Berndiel)
  • 1 January 1976: Wenschdorf (with Monbrunn)

Politics

Mayors

  • 1870-1905: Jakob Josef Schirmer
  • 1906-1924: Franz Breitenbach
  • 1925-1930: Dr. Roland Schmid
  • 1930-1933: Wilhelm Schwesinger
  • 1933-1935: Josef Funk
  • 1935-1945: Anton Burkart
  • 1945-1951: Oskar Sermersheim
  • 1952-1966: Anton Blatz
  • 1966-1978: Ludwig Büttner
  • 1978-1990: Anton Vogel
  • since 1990: Joachim Bieber

Town council

The council is made up of 20 council members with seats apportioned thus:

  • CSU 8 seats
  • SPD 5 seats
  • B.90/Die Grünen 2 seats
  • Liberale Miltenberger 3 seats
  • Miltenberger Wahlgemeinschaft e.V. MWG 2 seats

(as at municipal election held on 6 March 2008)

Town partnerships

Sponsorship

In 1960, the sponsorship for the Sudeten Germans driven out of the town of Dux was undertaken.

Coat of arms

The town’s arms might be described thus: Quarterly, first and fourth gules a wheel spoked of six argent, second and third argent the letter M of the first.

Miltenberg belonged from its founding in the 13th century until the Old Empire’s downfall in 1803 to Electoral Mainz, and it is for this state that the Wheel of Mainz stands. The M first appeared in a seal from the early 16th century that also included Saint Martin, as had earlier seals. The current arms are based on those that once were seen on the now vanished Schindtor, a town gate.

Culture and sightseeing

  • Worth seeing are the Mildenburg (the local castle), the town museum, the historical Old Town, the Schnatterloch (historical marketplace), the Hotel Zum Riesen (one of Germany’s oldest inns, if not the oldest), the Old Town Hall, the Mainz Gate (Mainzer Tor), the Würzburg Gate (Würzburger Tor) and the historical places in the surrounding woods. Right near the Mainz Gate is the Laurentiuskapelle (“Saint Lawrence’s Chapel”) with its abutting graveyard from about the 14th century.
  • Miltenberg lies on the Fränkischer Rotwein Wanderweg (“Franconian Red Wine Hiking Trail”), which was established in 1990, and which runs from Großwallstadt am Main through Miltenberg to Bürgstadt.
  • A new concept was introduced with the Route der Industriekultur Rhein-Main (“Rhine-Main Industrial Culture Route”), along which industrial building works on the 160 km between Miltenberg and Bingen are linked together into an adventure route about the Industrial Age in southern Germany. Already 700 buildings are scientifically catalogued, including Miltenberg’s old railway station.

Regular events

  • On the first weekend in July, the Old Town Festival (Altstadtfest) is held.
  • In late July, the Mildenburger Theatertage (“Theatre Days”) take place.
  • Beginning on the last weekend in August and for ten days, the Michaelismesse, the biggest folk festival on the Bavarian Lower Main (Bayerischer Untermain), is held (despite the similarity in names, it is not Michaelmas, which falls on 29 September, a month later).

Economy and infrastructure

Most important is tourism brought particularly on weekends to Miltenberg by visitors from the urban agglomerations in Hesse (Hanau, Offenbach am Main, Darmstadt, Frankfurt), but bunter and trade are also important.

Transport

Miltenberg lies on the railway line from Aschaffenburg to Wertheim (Main Valley Railway). Moreover, the Madonnenlandbahn branches off here towards Seckach. There are hourly connections to Aschaffenburg by day. In 1977, Deutsche Bundesbahn shut the end-of-line station right near the town (Miltenberg Hauptbahnhof) and replaced it with a through station on the other side of the river.

Miltenberg is linked to the urban agglomerations in Hesse, where many inhabitants work. Until 2008, the town bypass, which had been discussed and planned for more than 25 years was being completed. The building-cost financing, a sum of €55,000,000, was afforded for the first time ever in Bavaria through the so-called public-private partnership model.

Education

In Miltenberg various kinds of schools are represented:

  • Grundschule Miltenberg (primary school)
  • Heinrich-Ernst-Stötzner-Schule (special school)
  • Hauptschule Miltenberg
  • Johannes-Hartung-Realschule
  • Johannes-Butzbach-Gymnasium
  • Berufsschule Miltenberg-Obernburg (vocational school)

Breweries

There are today two breweries in town, Kalt-Loch-Bräu and Brauhaus Faust.

Famous people

Honorary citizens

  • Andreas Lang (b. 17 March 1857; d. 26 February 1946), chief forester, conferred 3 December 1917: Lang oversaw the Miltenberg state/municipal forest. Moreover, he was chairman of the Miltenberg beautification club. He promoted the region’s opening for tourism.
  • Gustav Jacob (b. 22 February 1854; d. 11 June 1933), businessman, conferred 3 December 1917: Jacob owned the firm Steingaesser & Co. On the occasion of the business’s 100th anniversary, he was made an honorary citizen. He also served the municipality as a member of the municipal college (Gemeindekollegium) and the executive.
  • Johann Jakob von Hauck (b. 22 December 1861; d. 20 January 1942), Archbishop of Bamberg, conferred 2 May 1921: His birth town recognized Hauck’s services to the Diocese of Würzburg, in which Miltenberg lies, by making him an honorary citizen.
  • Rupert Poiger (b. 12 August 1858; d. 16 February 1935), retired senior teacher, conferred 1 January 1924: Poiger was made an honorary citizen on the occasion of his retirement from active scholarly duties. He was head of the Progymnasium with Realschule for 25 years and also otherwise participated in public life.
  • Matthias Ehrenfried (b. 3 August 1871; d. 30 May 1948), Bishop of Würzburg, conferred 19 April 1927: Ehrenfried was honoured for building an episcopal boys’ seminary, “Kilianeum” in Miltenberg.
  • Heinrich Zunken (b. 11 March 1858; d. 16 November 1952), Sanitätsrat (title awarded to a physician of long standing), conferred 12 August 1929: Zunken worked for 45 years as a doctor at the municipal hospital
  • Josef Meisenzahl (b. 19 October 1876; d. 15 October 1952), Papal House Prelate, Canon, conferred 5 May 1930: Meisenzahl’s furthering of the town’s interests by building an episcopal boys’ seminary was recognized.
  • Martin Vierengel (b. 23 February 1869; d. 18 December 1960), retired senior teacher, conferred 30 July 1952: Vierengel worked as a schoolteacher in Miltenberg and was a great promoter of music. For his services to the town’s cultural life, he was made an honorary citizen.
  • Ludwig Frosch (b. 22 April 1872; d. 14 June 1956), retired municipal building adviser, conferred 30 August 1952: Frosch was cited for hjs services to the town’s design, as well as for the expansion of the Michaelismesse folk festival.


Sons and daughters of the town

  • Johannes Butzbach (1477 Miltenberg–1516 Maria Laach), humanist
  • Johannes Hartung (1505 Miltenberg–1579 Freiburg im Breisgau), Hellenist and Hebraist
  • Christoph Wamser (1580 presumably in Miltenberg–1649 vermutlich Köln), Baroque architect
  • Joseph Martin Kraus (1756 Miltenberg–1792 Stockholm), composer
  • Nikolaus Blöchinger (29 June 1659 Miltenberg–17 September 1715 Seligenstadt), Abbot Francis II
  • Franz Ambros Alexander, founder of the Gebr. Alexander Mainz musical instrument factory
  • Philipp Wirth (1808 Miltenberg–1878 Miltenberg), painter
  • Carl Gerster (1813 Miltenberg–1891 Regensburg), physician and founder of the Franconian Singing Association (Fränkischer Sängerbund)
  • Valentin Blatz (1826 Miltenberg–1894 Milwaukee), brewer and banker
  • Hermann Graml (b. 1928), historian and publicist
  • Ernst Volland (b. 1946), artist
  • Heiko Michael Hartmann (b. 1957), jurist and writer
  • Joachim Spatz (b. 1964 in Schippach), Bavarian politician and former Free Democratic Party Member of the Landtag
  • Björn Hertl (b. 1976), professional footballer with Wacker Burghausen
  • Heiko Grimm (b. 1977), handball player with HSV Hamburg
  • Alois Bube (May 1851 - 1908) Brewer, founded Bube's Brewery in Pennsylvania, open still today

People linked with the town

  • Matthias von Bucheck, Archbishop of Mainz and Imperial Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, d. 9 September 1328 in Miltenberg
  • Johann Draconites, also known as Johannes Drach or Trach(e), theologian and reformer, (1522 - 1523 clergyman in Miltenberg), d. 18 April 1566 in Wittenberg
  • Rudolf Hirth du Frênes, Maler, b. 24 July 1846 in Gräfentonna near Gotha; d. 1 May 1916 in Miltenberg
  • Jakob Fischer-Rhein, painter, b. 28 January 1888 in Düsseldorf; d. 28 October 1976 in Miltenberg
  • Werner Beierwaltes, philosophy professor, b. 8 May 1931 in Klingenberg am Main
  • Anton Schlembach, Bishop Emeritus of Speyer, b. 7 February 1932 in Großwenkheim
  • Petrus Karl Mangold, Franciscan, (1920 - 1931 minister and people’s missionary at the Miltenberg Monastery), d. 18 July 1942 at Dachau concentration camp

Further reading

References

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External links

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Template:Cities and towns in Miltenberg (district)