Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía
The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (MNCARS, also called the Museo Reina Sofía, Queen Sofía Museum, El Reina Sofía, or simply The Sofia) is Spain's national museum of 20th century art. The museum was officially inaugurated on September 10, 1992 and is named for Queen Sofía. It is located in Madrid, near the Atocha train and metro stations, at the southern end of the so-called Golden Triangle of Art (located along the Paseo del Prado and also comprising the Museo del Prado and the Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza).
The museum is mainly dedicated to Spanish art. Highlights of the museum include excellent collections of Spain's two greatest 20th century masters, Pablo Picasso and Salvador Dalí. Certainly the most famous masterpiece in the museum is Picasso's painting Guernica. The Reina Sofía collection has works by artists such as: Juan Gris, Joan Miró, Julio González, Eduardo Chillida, Antoni Tàpies, Pablo Gargallo, Pablo Serrano, Lucio Muñoz, Luis Gordillo, Jorge Oteiza and José Gutiérrez Solana.
International artists are few in the collection, but there are works by Robert Delaunay, Yves Tanguy, Man Ray, Jacques Lipchitz, Lucio Fontana, Yves Klein, Max Ernst, Richard Serra, Bruce Nauman, Donald Judd, Damien Hirst, Julian Schnabel, Joseph Beuys, Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell, Gabriel Orozco, Clyfford Still, cubist still lifes by Georges Braque and a large work by Francis Bacon.
Along with its extensive collection, the museum offers a mixture of national and international temporary exhibitions in its many galleries.
It also hosts a free-access library specializing in art, with a collection of over 100,000 books, over 3,500 sound recordings and almost 1,000 videos.
The central building of the museum was once an 18th-century hospital. Extensive modern renovations and additions to the old building were made starting in 1980. In 1988, portions of the new museum were opened to the public, mostly in temporary configurations; that same year it was decreed by the Ministry of Culture as a national museum. Its architectural identity was radically changed in 1989 by Ian Ritchie with the addition of three glass circulation towers. An 8000 m2 (86,000 ft2) expansion costing €92 million designed by French architect Jean Nouvel opened October 2005.
The building has been functioning as the Centro del Arte (Art Center) since 1986 but was established as the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía in 1988. But analyzing the building's history up until these events, it appears that the building was subjected to being tested out as different representations of what it is today.
It was first the foundation of the General Hospital of Madrid. King Philip II centralized in this area all the hospitals that were scattered throughout the court. This area is now home of the museum. In the eighteenth century, King Ferdinand VI decided to build a new hospital because the facilities at the time were insufficient for the city. The actual building was designed by architect José de Hermosilla and his successor Francisco Sabatini. The latter did a majority of the work.
In 1805, after numerous work stoppages, the building was to assume its function that it had been built for, which was being a hospital, although only one-third of the proposed project by Sabatini was completed.
Since then it has undergone various modifications and additions until, in 1969, it was closed down as a hospital. The hospital passed on its functions to the Ciudad Sanitaria Provincial.
Photo gallery, Reina Sofía Museum
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Close up of the front of the Reina Sofía in Madrid Spain.
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Reina Sofía Museum
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Interior gallery photo inside the Reina Sofía Museum
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Inside the Reina Sofía Museum
Popular culture references
The museum features, as a major protagonist, in Jim Jarmusch's The Limits of Control (2009).
- Museo de Escultura al Aire Libre de Alcalá de Henares