Newington, London

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Template:Distinguish Template:Infobox UK place Newington is a district of Central London, England, and part of the London Borough of Southwark. It was an ancient parish and the site of the early administration of the county of Surrey. It was the location of the County of London Sessions House from 1917, in a building now occupied by the Inner London Crown Court.

History

Toponymy

The name means "new farmstead" or the newer part of the manor of Walworth but because of its position on the principal road to the south-coast (Stane Street) subsumed it. The first mention of Newington (or Neweton) occurs in the Testa de Nevill (a survey of feudal tenure officially known as the Book of Fees compiled 1198-1242) during the reign of Henry III, wherein it is stated that the queen's goldsmith holds of the king one acre of land in Neweton, by the service of rendering a gallon of honey. In 1313 it is mentioned again in the Archbishop of Canterbury's Register as Newington juxta London. The name survives now in the street names Newington Causeway and Newington Butts and in the open space Newington Gardens, formerly the location of Horsemonger Lane Gaol from 1791. Newington Ward is one of three local council wards in Walworth, covering the area from the West side of Walworth road up to the border with Lambeth.

Urban development

Newington gained in importance around 1200 with the establishment of Lambeth Palace nearby, which increased the local traffic. The area remained as a farming village with a low level of population until the second half of the 18th century. There was a little industry, for example, the manufacture of clay pipes for tobacco smoking. In William Shakespeare's time, there was a theatre called Newington Butts and later there were further theatres. New roads brought development opportunities. The local landowner and MP for Winchester, Henry Penton, started to sell some of his farmland. The 19th century brought more dense speculative housebuilding, and some philanthropic provision too. The Trinity House Estate, laid out around an 1820s classical church by Francis Octavius Bedford, is still largely in existence.

Local governance

The parish of Newington St Mary was part of the Brixton hundred of Surrey. In 1855 it came within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works and the parish vestry was incorporated as a local authority. In 1889 it became part of the County of London. There was a reorganisation of local government in 1900 and the parish became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the vestry was abolished. The civil parish was finally abolished in 1930. The parish was of Template:Convert and the population peaked in 1901 at 121,863.

Newington is a ward within the London Borough of Southwark and the Parliamentary seat of Bermondsey and Old Southwark. It is represented by Councillors Neil Coyle and Patrick Diamond of the Labour Party and Catherine Bowman of the Liberal Democrats.

People

The scientist Michael Faraday was born here, in Newington Butts, in 1791. William Jowett, a 19th-century missionary and author, was born at Newington in 1787, as was the visionary English artist Samuel Palmer in 1805. Also born here was William John Swainson, the ornithologist and renowned natural history artist (1789-1855)

Geography

Nearest places:

  • Walworth
  • Kennington
  • Bermondsey
  • Vauxhall

Nearest tube stations:

  • Borough
  • Elephant & Castle
  • Lambeth North
  • London Bridge

Nearest railway stations:

  • London Bridge
  • Elephant & Castle

References

Template:Reflist

External links

Template:Metropolitan Board of Works