Offenbach am Main

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Template:Infobox German Location

Offenbach am Main is a city in Hesse, Germany, located on the southside of the river Main, close to Frankfurt am Main. At the end of 2013 it had a population of 126,934. The city is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main metropolitan area as well as the Frankfurt urban area.

Offenbach was a center of the leather industry, which has however declined in the last decades. It is still the seat of the Deutsches Ledermuseum (German Leather Museum), and also of the international leather fair.

History

File:Offenbach (Merian).jpg
Offenbach in 1655
File:Frankfurterstr-of.jpg
The main street Frankfurter Straße around 1900

The first documented reference to a suburb of Offenbach appears in 770. In a document of the Holy Roman Emperor Otto II dating to 977 exists the first mention of the place of Offenbach.<ref name=factsfigures>Template:Cite web</ref> During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.

In 1635 Offenbach given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642 and remained in that Principality until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. A year later it was given to the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

Always very close to the city centre of Frankfurt, Offenbach was a popular location for business. The town has its own trade fair, and many companies have opened facilities here because there are fewer restrictions and no closed businesses. French Protestants (Huguenots) came in the 17th century and settled in Offenbach and contributed to making Offenbach a prosperous city, e.g., bringing knowledge of tobacco with them and turning Offenbach into a centre for rolling cigars. The town was more cosmopolitan than Frankfurt; famous people such as Goethe and Mozart visited it several times.

The Rumpenheim Palace and its park were a popular destination for monarchs in the 19th century. The city was thereafter ruled by Grand Dukes of Hesse and by Rhine until the monarchy was abolished in 1918. Offenbach became the center of the traditional design with figures such as the architect Hugo Eberhardt, the typographer Rudolf Koch, the bookbinder and designer Ignatz Wiemeler and Ernst Engel and the painter Karl Friedrich Lippmann.

During the Second World War a third of the city was destroyed by Allied bombing, which claimed 467 lives. With the new district Lauterborn the city was expanded to the south in the 1960s. On the border with Frankfurt, the office district Kaiserlei was built.

Boroughs of Offenbach

The inner town of Offenbach is quite large and has only a few suburbs. In the east the three incorporated: Bürgel (incorporated 1908), Bieber (incorporated April 1, 1938), and Rumpenheim (incorporated April 4, 1942). In the south are the newer suburbs Lauterborn and Rosenhöhe, Tempelsee, the office town Kaiserlei and the industrial area Waldheim.

Economy

File:City Tower Nordseite2.jpg
The 120-meter high "City-Tower" is mainly used as the German headquarters of Capgemini

Until the early 1970s Offenbach was dominated by the machine-building and leather industries. The city hosts the German Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies to this day. The Deutscher Wetterdienst, commonly abbreviated as DWD, (translated from German as German Meteorological Service), residing in the Westend district.

Offenbach was also the European center of typography, with Gebr. Klingspor and Linotype (inventors of Optima or Palatino typeface) moving to nearby Eschborn in the 1970s and MAN Roland printing machines still a major employer today. Typography and design still remain important with a cluster of graphic design and industrial design companies, as well as the university level HfG Offenbach design school and the Klingspor Museum.

In recent years Offenbach has become a popular location for a wide array of services, especially from the transport sectors. Offenbach is the host to the European headquarters of Honda, Hyundai Motors and Kumho Tires.

Main sights

File:Klingspor-Museum.jpg
Klingspor Museum
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The Büsing-Park in winter

In Offenbach there is no specific Old Town, but there are several buildings to see which survived bombing during the war and have been restored. One of them is the neo-Baroque palace Büsingpalais with the Büsingpark, reconstructed in the 1980s. Now it is used as a congress center close to the Sheraton hotel. Between the shopping area and the Main, is the Lilipark and the Lilitemple, named after Goethe’s fiancee Lili Schönemann. The most important building is the Isenburg Palace a renaissance palace from 1576 with an impressive façade. It is today used by the Offenbach Design University which is next to it. There is also a neoclassic palace in the borough Rumpenheim, the Rumpenheimer Schloss it now serves exclusively as domestic dwellings but the park is public.

  • Isenburg Palace, a typical Renaissance building from 1576, now used by the Offenbach Design University
  • Büsingpalais with Büsingpark
  • Wilhelmsplatz a square with coffee houses and three times a week a market.
  • Buildings of the French Protestant Church and the French Protestant Community.
  • Rumpenheim Palace.
  • Former Synagogue "Capitol" (now a concert hall next to the new Synagogue).
  • The Westend Quarter (19th century).
  • Several art deco apartment houses.
  • Buildings by early 20th century architect Hugo Eberhardt: "Heyne" Factory, main building of the Design University, AOK Insurance building.
  • Prefabricated houses by Egon Eiermann in Lauterborn

Culture

There are several festivals in Offenbach, some of these are:

  • Lichterfest im Büsing-Park (festival of lights in the park of the Büsing palais)
  • Nacht der Museen (with Frankfurt)
  • Mainuferfest
  • Cross Media Night

Museums

  • German Leather Museum
  • Klingspor Museum, museum of typography and calligraphy
  • Haus der Stadtgeschichte, municipal historical museum
  • Rosenheim-Museum for the painter Bernd Rosenheim

Gallery

Population history

File:Bevölkerungsentwicklung in Offenbach.png
The development of the population in Offenbach between 1540 and 1997.

Until the end of the 17th century, Offenbach remained a small town with less than a thousand habitants. With the coming into power of the earl Johann Philipp in 1685, the city began to develop and the population rose steadily. In the 19th century the city became industrialized and the population increased even tenfold.<ref name=grossstadtmain>Template:Cite web</ref> Offenbach is one of the German cities where Germans without migrant background make up a minority of the population. As of 31 December 2012, approx. 44.3% of residents or 55,047 people had no foreign background. In contrast to that, there were 55.7% or 69,214 people of non-German descent. The largest groups of those are:

Turks: 15,000 or 12.2%

former Yugoslavians (e.g. Serbs, Croats): 13,000 or 10.5%

Arabs: 8,000 or 6.5%

Italians: 8,000 or 6.5%

Greeks: 7,500 or 6.0%

Poles: 4,000 or 3.2%

Afghans: 3,600 or 3%

Pakistanis: 2,700 or 2.2%

Year Population
1540 480
1685 600
1718 1,500
1800 5,000
1816 6,210
1825 7,147
1828 7,466
1830 7,498
December 1, 1834 9,433
December 1, 1840 9,597
December 3, 1843 9,883
December 3, 1846 11,565
December 3, 1852 11,087
December 3, 1855 13,724
December 3, 1861 16,708
December 3, 1864 19,390
Year Population
December 3, 1867 20,322
December 1, 1871 22,689
December 1, 1875 26,012
December 1, 1880 28,597
December 1, 1885 31,704
December 1, 1890 35,064
December 2, 1895 39,388
December 1, 1900 50,468
December 1, 1905 59,765
December 1, 1910 75,583
December 1, 1916 67,197
December 5, 1917 67,483
October 8, 1919 75,380
June 16, 1925 79,362
June 16, 1933 81,329
May 17, 1939 85,140
Year Population
December 31, 1945 70,600
October 29, 1946 75,479
September 13, 1950 89,030
September 25, 1956 104,283
June 6, 1961 116,195
December 31, 1965 117,893
May 27, 1970 117,306
December 31, 1975 115,251
December 31, 1980 110,993
December 31, 1985 107,090
May 25, 1987 111,386
December 31, 1990 114,992
December 31, 1995 116,533
December 31, 2000 117,535
September 30, 2005 119,833
March 31, 2007 117,224
Year Population
December 31, 2008 118,103
December 31, 2009 117,718
December 31, 2010 119,734
December 31, 2011 121,970
December 31, 2012 116,945
December 31, 2013 126,934

Mayors from 1824 - 2013

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  • 1824–1826: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1826–1834: Heinrich Philipp Schwaner
  • 1834–1837: Peter Georg d'Orville
  • 1837–1849: Jonas Budden
  • 1849–1859: Friedrich August Schäfer
  • 1859–1867: Johann Heinrich Dick
  • 1867–1874: Johann Martin Hirschmann
  • 1874–1882: Hermann Stölting
  • 1883–1907: Wilhelm Brink
  • 1907–1919: Andreas Dullo
  • 1919–1933: Max Granzin
  • 1947–1949: Johannes Rebholz
  • 1950–1957: Hans Klüber
  • 1957–1974: Georg Dietrich
  • 1974–1980: Walter Buckpesch
  • 1980–1986: Walter Suermann
  • 1986–1994: Wolfgang Reuter
  • 1994–2006: Gerhard Grandtke
  • 2006–: Horst Schneider
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Notable residents

Notable people born in Offenbach include:

  • Johann André (1741-1799), founder of the music publishing firm named after him
  • Gottfried Böhm (1923-) architect who won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1986
  • Moritz Wilhelm August Breidenbach (1796–1857) a German jurist
  • Ray Bumatai, born here
  • Heinrich von Brentano (1904–1964) a German conservative politician
  • Olli Dittrich, born here
  • Hans Hotter, opera singer
  • Prince Philipp of Hesse, prince and governor
  • Helene Mayer, fencer, born here

Others who have resided in Offenbach include:

  • Rabbi Abraham Bing (1752–1841)
  • Jacob Frank, Jewish religious leader
  • Rudi Völler, German football coach
  • Cornelia Hanisch, fencer, former world champion and 1984 Olympic gold medallist
  • Heinrich Kaminski, worked here
  • Friedrich Kellner, attended Goethschule here
  • Karlgeorg Hoefer, calligrapher and typographer
  • Regina Jonas, first female Rabbi, ordained in Offenbach
  • Rudolf Koch, worked and taught here
  • Fritz Kredel, studied here
  • Philipp Mainländer, died here
  • Götz Otto, actor, born here
  • Anthony Rother Electronic musician
  • Snap!, German dance group
  • Berthold Wolpe, notable typographer and type designer
People from Offenbach

Transport

File:S-Bahnhof Offenbach Marktplatz.jpg
S-Bahn station: Marktplatz

Roads

The streets of central Offenbach are usually congested with cars during the rush hour. Some areas, especially around the shopping streets, are pedestrian-only streets. There are numerous car parks located throughout the city. The Offenbacher Kreuz is an Autobahn interchange where the Autobahnen A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 661 meet. The A661 crosses the A 3 (Cologne-Würzburg) and A 5 (Basel-Hannover).

Public transport

The city is connected by a major line of the S-Bahn railway system to Frankfurt. The station in the city center is Marktplatz. The station Kaiserlei could be used from Frankfurt and Offenbach with the same price. In general, six stations are located in Offenbach: Offenbach-Kaiserlei, Offenbach-Ledermuseum, Offenbach-Marktplatz, Offenbach-Ost, Offenbach-Bieber, Offenbach-Waldhof. The city's public transportation services OVB and NIO connect all city districts to downtown by bus lines. Information about the public transport can be found on the RMV website Since the construction of the S-Bahn, the central train station, the Offenbach Hauptbahnhof, is no longer considered important.

Frankfurt Airport

The city is accessed from around the world via the Frankfurt Airport, (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 12 km (7 mi) from Offenbach. The airport can be reached by car or bus and has two train stations, one for regional and one for long-distance traffic. The S-Bahn lines S8 and S9 (direction "Offenbach Ost or "Hanau"), departing from the regional traffic station, take 15 minutes from the airport to get to Offenbach.

Bicycles

In the summer, seasonal bicycles could be rented from nextbike, a rental company in Offenbach and Frankfurt. Only a credit card and a mobile phone is necessary to take a bike parked somewhere in the town.

Sport

File:Diba stadion offenbach 06.JPG
home to the football club Kickers Offenbach stadium "Bieberer Berg"

Offenbach hosts the German association football club Kickers Offenbach. The club was founded in 1901.

International relations

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Twin towns – Sister cities

Offenbach am Main is twinned with:

References

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External links

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Template:Cities in Germany Template:Germany districts Hesse