Parliament of Romania

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Template:Use dmy dates Template:Infobox legislature

The Parliament of Romania (Template:Lang-ro) is the national legislature of Romania, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputa?ilor), and the Senate (Senat).

Prior to the modification of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but each house has designated matters it gets to deliberate before the other, in capacity of "deciding chamber" (Template:Lang-ro). If that first chamber adopts a law proposal (relating to its competences), it is passed on to the other one, which can approve or reject. If it makes amendments, the bill is sent back to the deciding chamber, the decision of which is final.

In 2009, a referendum was held to consult the population about turning the parliament into a unicameral body and reducing the number of representatives to 300. Although the referendum passed, the results are not binding, a referendum explicitly mentioning the modification of the constitution being required to achieve this.

History

The parliamentary history of Romania starts in May 1831 in Wallachia, where a constitutional document was adopted, the Regulamentul Organic ("Organic Statute" or "Organic Regulation"); less than a year later, in January 1832, this same statute was implemented in Moldavia as well. The organic regulation laid the foundations for the parliamentary institution in the Romanian Principalities.

The Paris Convention of 19 August 1858 and, especially, the Statutul Dezvolt?tor ("Expanding Statute") of that convention (which introduced a bicameral parliament, by founding the Corpul Ponderator, later renamed Senat), adopted on the initiative of prince (Domnitor) Alexandru Ioan Cuza, by means of a plebiscite in 1864, perfected and enlarged the principle of national representation. Under the political regime established by the Paris Convention, the legislative power faced an obvious process of modernization, and the legislative power as National Representation, which operated in accordance with the organization and operation mode of parliaments in Western Europe at that time.

The historical process of formation of the Parliament of Romania in the modern age strongly boosted the affirmation of national sovereignty, subsequently leading to the Union of the two Principalities, in 1859. Under the dome of the Romanian Parliament, on 9 May 1877, the Declaration of Romania's Independence was read, and, in 1920, the documents of union with Transylvania and Bessarabia under the Treaty of Trianon were read, the formal beginning of Greater Romania.

In February 1938, amid the rather chaotic European political association that eventually led to World War II, King Carol II, who always tended to favor his own personal rule over parliamentarism, imposed a rule of authoritarian monarchy. Under the royal dictatorship, the parliament became merely a decorative body, deprived of its main attributes.

Carol abdicated in September 1940, and the succeeding National Legionary State suspended parliament. The National Legionary State as such lasted less than five months, but it was succeeded by Ion Antonescu's military dictatorship, and parliament remained suspended. After 23 August 1944, under the pressure of Soviet and other communist forces, the parliament was re-organized as a single legislative body, the Assembly of Deputies, changed under the 1948 constitution, into the Great National Assembly, a merely formal body, totally subordinate to the power of the Romanian Communist Party.

The Romanian Revolution of December 1989 opened the road for Romanians to restore authentic pluralistic electoral democracy, respecting human rights, and observing the separation of powers and the rulers' responsibility before representative bodies. Thanks to the documents issued by the provisional revolutionary power, Romania has returned to a bicameral parliamentary system. All these stipulations can be found in the country's new Constitution, approved by referendum in 1991.

During more than a decade of post-communist transition, the Chamber of Deputies and Senate debated and adopted numerous laws and regulations aimed at reforming the entire society on a democratic basis, guaranteeing respect of fundamental human rights, promoting reform and privatization, consolidating market economic institutions and those of a state ruled by law, which led to Romania's integration into such institutions at NATO and the European Union.

Leadership history

The 1866, 1923, and 1938 Constitution of Romania state that the assembly presidents are elected at the beginning of each session. This tradition was kept in the early years of the People's Republic. In modern times, both presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate are elected for the entire duration of that house's term. Under special circumstances the presidents of the houses can be revoked.

The political stance of presidents of the assembleys prior to the development of a modern party system is given by:

Template:Color box C (Conservative) Template:Color box MC (Moderate Conservative)
Template:Color box RL (Radical Liberal) Template:Color box ML (Moderate Liberal)

The political stance of presidents of the assembleys after the development of a modern party system is given by:

Template:Color box PNL = National Liberal Party Template:Color box PC = Conservative Party
Template:Color box PNR = Romanian National Party Template:Color box PP = People's Party
Template:Color box PCD = Conservative-Democratic Party Template:Color box PN? = National Peasants' Party
Template:Color box PND = Democratic Nationalist Party Template:Color box PNC = National Christian Party
Template:Color box FRN = National Renaissance Front
(from 1940 PN; Party of the Nation)
Template:Color box FP = Ploughmen's Front
Template:Color box PMR = Romanian Workers' Party
(from 1965 PCR; Romanian Communist Party)
Template:Color box FSN = National Salvation Front
Template:Color box PDSR = Party of Social Democracy in Romania
(from 2001 PSD; Social Democratic Party)
Template:Color box PN?CD = Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party
Template:Color box PSDR = Romanian Social Democratic Party Template:Color box PD-L = Democratic Liberal Party
(until 2008 PD; Democratic Party)
Template:Color box Mil. = Military Template:Color box Ind. = Independent
El.
yr.
Leg.
no.
LOWER HOUSE UPPER HOUSE
# Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party # Name Portrait Born-Died Took office Left office Party
1862 I Assembly of Deputies not yet established
1 Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusail? 60px 24 January 1862 2 May 1864 Ind.
1864 II 2 Alexandru Emanoil Florescu 60px 29 December 1864 25 June 1865 C Corpul Ponderator
1 Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusail? 60px 6 December 1864 1 June 1866 Ind.
3 Emanoil Costache Epureanu 60px 1823 - 1880 12 December 1865 3 January 1866 C
4 Nicolae Catargiu 60px 9 January 1866 12 February 1866 C
1866
(Apr)
III (3) Emanoil Costache Epureanu 60px 1823 - 1880 9 May 1866 6 July 1866 C Senat
(1) Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusail? 60px 1 June 1866 6 June 1868 Ind.
1866
(Nov)
IV 5 Lasc?r Catargiu 60px 1823 - 1899 12 December 1866 1 November 1867 C
6 Anastasie F?tu 60px 15 January 1868 15 November 1868 RL 2  ?tefan Golescu 60px 1809 - 1874 6 September 1868 15 November 1868 RL
7 Ion C. Br?tianu 60px 1821 - 1891 18 November 1868 29 January 1869 RL 3 Nicolae Golescu 60px 1810 - 1877 18 November 1868 9 July 1869 RL
1869 V 8 Costache Negri 60px 1812 – 1876 8 May 1869 17 November 1869 ML 4 Alexandru Plagino 60px 2 September 1869 4 March 1871 MC
9 Grigore Bal? 60px 20 November 1869 1 May 1870 MC
1870 VI 10 Gheorghe Costa-Foru 60px 1820 - 1876 2 July 1870 3 February 1871 C
11 Nicolae P?cleanu 60px 5 February 1871 16 March 1871 RL
1871 VII 12 Dimitrie Ghica 60px 1816 - 1897 26 May 1871 17 February 1876 C (1) Metropolitan-primate Nifon Rusail? 60px 4 March 1871 5 May 1875 Ind.
1875 VIII 5 Metropolitan-primate Calinic Miclescu 60px 9 June 1875 25 March 1879 Ind.
13 Constantin N. Br?iloiu 60px 18 February 1876 3 May 1876 C
1876 IX 14 Constantin A. Rosetti 60px 1816 - 1885 25 June 1876 26 May 1878 PNL
15 Gheorghe Vernescu 60px 6 June 1878 15 November 1878 PNL
(14) Constantin A. Rosetti 60px 1816 - 1885 17 November 1878 9 June 1881 PNL
1879 X 6 Constantin Bosianu 60px 1815 - 1882 25 May 1879 15 November 1879 PNL
7 Dimitrie Ghica 60px 1816 - 1897 17 November 1879 8 September 1888 PNL
1881 XI 16 Dimitrie C. Br?tianu 60px 9 June 1881 21 October 1882 PNL
17 Dimitrie Lecca 60px 21 October 1882 5 March 1883 PNL
1883 XII (14) Constantin A. Rosetti 60px 1816 - 1885 16 May 1883 17 October 1883 PNL
(17) Dimitrie Lecca 60px 19 October 1883 4 July 1888 PNL
1884 XIII
1888 XIV (5) Lasc?r Catargiu 60px 1823 - 1899 10 November 1888 14 January 1889 PC 8 Ion Emanoil Florescu 60px 1819 - 1893 4 November 1888 7 December 1889 PC
18 Constantin Gr?di?teanu 60px 19 January 1889 16 November 1889 PC 9 Nicolae Cre?ulescu 60px 1812 - 1900 13 December 1889 6 June 1890 PC
19 Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino 60px 1833 - 1913 16 November 1889 22 February 1891 PC (8) Ion Emanoil Florescu 60px 1819 - 1893 17 November 1890 21 February 1891 PC
1891 XV 20 Gheorghe Rosnovanu 60px 3 May 1891 11 December 1891 PC 10 Constantin Boerescu 60px 1 March 1891 11 December 1891 PC
1892 XVI 21 Gheorghe Manu 60px 1833 - 1911 26 February 1892 24 October 1895 PC 11 Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino 60px 1833 - 1913 25 February 1892 24 October 1895 PC
1895 XVII 22 Petre C. Aurelian 60px 9 December 1895 21 November 1896 PNL (7) Dimitrie Ghica 60px 1816 - 1897 9 December 1895 15 February 1897 PNL
12 Dimitrie Alexandru Sturdza 60px 1833 - 1914 20 February 1897 31 March 1897 PNL
23 Dimitrie Gianni 60px 23 November 1896 21 April 1899 PNL 13 Eugeniu St?tescu 60px 1836 - 1905 31 March 1897 18 November 1897 PNL
14 Nicolae Gane 60px 18 November 1897 21 April 1899 PNL
1899 XVIII 24 Constantin Ol?nescu 60px 13 June 1899 21 September 1900 PC (10) Constantin Boerescu 60px 13 June 1899 14 February 1901 PC
(19) Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino 60px 1833 - 1913 25 September 1900 14 February 1901 PC
1901 XIX 25 Mihail Pherekyde 60px 1842 - 1926 24 March 1901 9 December 1904 PNL (13) Eugeniu St?tescu 60px 1836 - 1905 24 March 1901 15 November 1902 PNL
26  ?tefan ?endrea 60px 9 December 1904 23 December 1904 PNL 15 Petre S. Aurelian 60px 1833 - 1909 16 November 1902 23 December 1904 PNL
1905 XX 27 Grigore Trandafil 60px 25 February 1905 23 February 1907 PC (10) Constantin Boerescu 60px 25 February 1905 26 April 1907 PC
28 Constantin Cantacuzino-Pa?canu 60px 26 February 1907 26 April 1907 PC
1907 XXI (25) Mihail Pherekyde 60px 1842 - 1926 8 June 1907 15 December 1909 PNL (15) Petre S. Aurelian 60px 1833 - 1909 9 June 1907 24 January 1909 PNL
29 Basile M. Missir 60px 15 December 1909 16 February 1910 PNL
(25) Mihail Pherekyde 60px 1842 - 1926 16 February 1910 10 January 1911 PNL 16 Constantin Budi?teanu 60px 28 January 1909 10 January 1911 PNL
1911 XXII (24) Constantin Ol?nescu 60px 8 March 1911 17 October 1912 PC (11) Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino 60px 1833 - 1913 10 March 1911 23 March 1913 PC
1912 XXIII (28) Constantin Cantacuzino-Pa?canu 60px 1 December 1912 11 January 1914 PCD
17 Theodor Rosetti 60px 1837 - 1932 27 March 1913 3 July 1913 PC
18 Ion Lahovari 60px 3 July 1913 11 January 1914 PC
1914 XXIV (25) Mihail Pherekyde 60px 1842 - 1926 21 February 1914 11 December 1916 PNL 19 Basile M. Missir 60px 21 February 1914 9 December 1916 PNL
30 Vasile C. Mor?un 60px 11 December 1916 25 April 1918 PNL 20 Emanoil Porumbaru 60px 1845 - 1921 9 December 1916 25 April 1918 PNL
1918 XXV 31 Constantin Meissner 60px 5 June 1918 5 November 1918 PCP 21 Dimitrie I. Dobrescu 60px 4 June 1918 5 November 1918 PCP
1919 XXVI 32 Alexandru Vaida-Voevod 1872 - 1950 28 November 1919 1 December 1919 PNR 22 Paul Bujor 60px 28 December 1918 26 March 1920 P?B
33 Nicolae Iorga 60px 1871 - 1940 9 December 1919 26 March 1920 PND
1920 XXVII 34 Duliu Zamfirescu 60px 30 June 1920 22 January 1922 PP 23 Constantin Coand? 60px 1857 - 1932 22 June 1920 22 January 1922 PP
1922 XXVIII 35 Mihail Orleanu 60px 6 April 1922 27 March 1926 PNL 24 Mihail Pherekyde 60px 1842 - 1926 31 March 1922 24 January 1926 PNL
25 Constantin I. Nicolaescu 60px 3 February 1926 27 March 1926 PNL
1926 XXIX 36 Petre P. Negulescu 60px 10 July 1926 5 June 1927 PP (23) Constantin Coand? 60px 1857 - 1932 8 July 1926 5 June 1927 PP
1927 XXX 37 Nicolae S?veanu 60px 30 July 1927 10 November 1928 PNL 26 Constantin I. Nicolaescu 60px 18 June 1927 10 November 1928 PNL
1928 XXXI 38  ?tefan Cico Pop 60px 23 December 1928 30 April 1931 PN? 27 Traian Bratu 60px 23 December 1928 30 April 1931 PN?
1931 XXXII 39 Dimitrie Pompeiu 60px 1873 - 1954 20 June 1931 10 June 1932 PND 28 Mihail Sadoveanu 60px 18 June 1931 10 June 1932 Ind.
1932 XXXIII (38) Stefan Cicio Pop 60px 10 August 1932 18 November 1933 PN? 29 Nicolae Cost?lescu 60px 4 August 1932 18 November 1933 PN?
1933 XXXIV (37) Nicolae S?veanu 60px 10 February 1934 19 November 1937 PNL 31 Leonte Moldovan 60px 10 February 1934 15 November 1935 PNL
1934 XXXV
32 Constantin Dimitriu-Dovlecel 60px 15 November 1935 15 November 1936 PNL
33 Alexandru Lapedatu 60px 16 November 1936 20 March 1937 PNL
1937 XXXVI
1939 XXXVII (32) Alexandru Vaida-Voevod 1872 - 1950 9 June 1939 5 September 1940 FRN/PN 34 Nicolae Iorga 60px 1871 - 1940 9 June 1939 13 June 1939 Ind.
35 Constantin Argetoianu 1871 - 1955 15 June 1939 5 August 1940 FNR/PN
1946 XXXVIII 40 Mihail Sadoveanu 60px 5 December 1946 24 February 1948 BPD suspended
1948 XXXIX Great National Assembly disbanded
41 Gheorghe Apostol 60px 1913 - 2010 7 April 1948 11 June 1948 PMR
42 Constantin Agiu 60px 11 June 1948 27 December 1948 PMR
43 Constantin Pârvulescu 60px 1895 - 1992 27 December 1948 5 July 1949 PMR
44 Dumitru Petrescu 60px 5 July 1949 28 December 1949 PMR
45 Alexandru Dr?ghici 60px 28 December 1949 26 January 1950 PMR
(44) Dumitru Petrescu 60px 26 January 1950 29 May 1950 PMR
46 Constantin Doncea 60px 29 May 1950 6 September 1950 PMR
(41) Gheorghe Apostol 60px 1913 - 2010 6 September 1950 5 April 1951 PMR
47 Ioan Vin?e 60px 1910 - 1996 5 April 1951 26 March 1952 PMR
(41) Gheorghe Apostol 60px 1913 - 2010 26 March 1952 6 June 1952 PMR
48 Gheorghe Stoica 60px 2 June 1952 30 November 1952 PMR
1952 XL (45) Constantin Pârvulescu 60px 1895 - 1992 23 January 1953 5 March 1961 PMR
1957 XLI
1961 XLII
49  ?tefan Voitec 60px 1900 - 1984 20 March 1961 28 March 1974 PMR/PCR
1965 XLIII
1969 XLIV
50 Miron Constantinescu 60px 1917 - 1974 28 March 1974 18 July 1974 PCR
51 Nicolae Giosan 60px 26 July 1974 12 December 1989 PCR
1975 XLV
1980 XLVI
1985 XLVII
1990 XLVIII Assembly of Deputies Senate
52 Mar?ian Dan 60px 1935 - 2002 19 June 1990 16 October 1992 FSN 35 Alexandru Bârl?deanu 60px 1911 - 1997 18 June 1990 16 October 1992 FSN
1992 XLIX Chamber of Deputies 36 Oliviu Gherman 60px 1930 - 22 October 1992 22 November 1996 FDSN/PDSR
53 Adrian N?stase 60px 1950 - 28 October 1992 22 November 1996 FDSN/PDSR
1996 L 54 Ion Diaconescu 60px 1917 - 2011 27 November 1996 30 November 2000 PN?CD 37 Petre Roman 60px 1946 - 27 November 1996 22 December 1999 PD
38 Mircea Ionescu-Quintus 60px 1917 - 4 February 2000 30 November 2000 PNL
2000 LI 55 Valer Dorneanu 60px 1944 - 15 December 2000 30 November 2004 PDSR/PSD 39 Nicolae V?c?roiu 60px 1943 - 15 December 2000 14 October 2008 PDSR/PSD
2004 LII (53) Adrian N?stase 60px 1950 - 19 December 2004 16 March 2006 PSD
57 Bogdan Olteanu 60px 1971 - 20 March 2006 13 December 2008 PNL
Doru Ioan T?r?cil?
(acting)
60px 1951 - 14 October 2008 28 October 2008 PSD
40 Ilie Sârbu 60px 1950 - 28 October 2008 13 December 2008 PSD
2008 LIII 57 Roberta Anastase 60px 1976 - 19 December 2008 3 July 2012 PD-L 41 Mircea Geoan? 60px 1958 - 19 December 2009 23 November 2011 PSD
Petru Filip (acting) 60px 1955 - 23 November 2011 28 November 2011 PDL
43 Vasile Blaga 60px 1956 - 28 November 2011 3 July 2012 PDL
58 Valeriu Zgonea 60px 1967 - 3 July 2012 20 December 2012 PSD 44 Crin Antonescu 60px 1959 - 3 July 2012 19 December 2012 PNL
2012 LIV 20 December 2012 19 December 2012

Functioning

Prior to the modifications of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses. If the text differed, a special commission (comisie de mediere) was formed by deputies and senators, that "negotiated" between the two houses the form of the future law. The report of this commission had to be approved in a joint session of the Parliament. This French procedure proved to be extremely long and inefficient with respect to the expectations of the Romanians towards democracy.

After the 2003 referendum, a law still has to be approved by both houses, but in some matters one is "superior" to the other, being called "decision chamber" ("camer? decizional?"). This eliminates the process of "negotiation" between the two houses, and keeps the Senate as the upper house and the Chamber as the lower house.

Composition

Template:Politics of Romania

2008–2012

Template:Main Template:Seats in the Senate of Romania, 6th legislature Template:Seats in the Chamber of Deputies of Romania, 6th legislature

2004 – 2008

Template:Main

References

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External links

Template:Romania topics Template:Europe topic

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