The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply Quirinale) is a historic building in Rome, Italy, the current official residence of the President of the Italian Republic. It is located on the Quirinal Hill, the highest of the seven hills of Rome. It has housed thirty popes, four kings and eleven presidents of the Italian Republic. The palace extends for an area of 110,500 square metres and is the 6th largest palace in the world in terms of area, as well as the largest residence of a Head of State.
The current site of the palace has been in use since Roman times, as excavations in the gardens testify. On this hill, the Romans built temples to several deities, from the Flora to Quirinus, after whom the hill was named. During the reign of Constantine the last complex of Roman baths was built here, as the statues of the twins Castor and Pollux taming the horses decorating the fountain in the square testify. The Quirinal, being the highest hill in Rome, was very sought after and became a popular spot for the Roman patricians, who built their luxurious villas. An example of those are the remains of a villa in the Quirinal gardens, where a mosaic, part of the old floor has been found.Template:Citation needed
Foundation of the current palace
The palace, located on the Via del Quirinale and facing onto the Piazza del Quirinale, was built in 1583 by Pope Gregory XIII as a papal summer residence. The pope wanted to find a location which would have been far away from the humidity and stench coming from the river Tiber and the unhealthy conditions of the Lateran Palace, therefore the Quirinal hill was one of the most suitable places in Rome. On the site, there was already a small villa owned by the Carafa family and rented to Luigi d'Este. The pope commissioned the architect Ottaviano Mascherino to build a palace with porticoed parallel wings and an internal court. The project was not fully completed due to the death of the pope in 1585 but it is still recognisable in the north part of the court, especially in the double loggia facade, topped by the panoramic Torre dei venti (tower of the winds) or Torrino. To the latter, a bell tower was added according to a project by Carlo Maderno and Francesco Borromini.Template:Citation needed
From the 17th century
Pope Paul V commissioned the completion of the work on the main building of the palace.
The Palace was also used as the location for papal conclaves in 1823, 1829, 1831, and 1846. It served as a papal residence and housed the central offices responsible for the civil government of the Papal States until 1870. In September 1870, what was left of the Papal States was overthrown. About five months later, in 1871, Rome became the capital of the new Kingdom of Italy. The palace became the official royal residence of the Kings of Italy, though some monarchs, notably King Victor Emmanuel III (reigned 1900–1946) actually lived in a private residence elsewhere (Villa Savoia), the Quirinale being used simply as an office and for state functions. The monarchy was abolished in 1946 and the Palace became the official residence and workplace for the Presidents of the Italian Republic. Still, some declined the Colle residence and kept their usual Roman residence: for example, Sandro Pertini preferred his old flat near the Trevi Fountain.
The façade was designed by Domenico Fontana. Its Great Chapel was designed by Carlo Maderno. It contains frescos by Guido Reni, but the most famous fresco is the Blessing Christ by Melozzo da Forlì, placed over the stairs. Its grounds include a famous set of gardens laid out in the eighteenth century.
- Palazzo Madama, seat of the Italian Senate
- Palazzo Montecitorio, seat of the Italian Chamber of Deputies
- Palazzo Chigi, seat of the Italian Government and official residence of the Prime Minister of Italy
- Palazzo della Consulta, seat of the Constitutional Court of Italy
- Template:Cite book
- Official site of the Presidency of Italy (Virtual tour of Quirinal Palace)
- Satellite image of the palace and its garden Note: One block north east of the Gardens is the Palazzo Barberini. Midway along the long southeast wing flanking the garden, across the street, is the small dome of Bernini's Sant'Andrea al Quirinale. At the next corner north is the inconspicuous church by Borromini, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Diagonal and to the west of the facade, amid a warren of small streets is the turquoise tub-like polygon of the Trevi Fountain.