RAI

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RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. (commercially styled Rai; known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane) is Italy's national public broadcasting company, owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance.

RAI operates a large number of television channels and radio stations, broadcasting via digital terrestrial transmission (15 television and 7 radio channels nationwide) and from several satellite and IPTV platforms. It is the biggest country broadcaster and competes with Mediaset, Telecom Italia Media, and Sky Italia – as well as commercial radio networks. RAI has a relatively high television audience share of 33.8%.<ref name="Report on Operations">Ascolti Tv 2013: Rai predomina con Rai1</ref>

RAI's broadcasts are also received in neighboring countries, including Albania, Croatia, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, San Marino, Slovenia, Vatican City, and southern Switzerland.

Half of RAI's revenues come from broadcast receiving licence fees, the rest from the sale of advertising time.<ref name="Min. of Communications1">"Basta con il governo padrone, così cambierà la Tv pubblica" Template:It icon Retrieved on 2007-10-10</ref><ref name="Min. of Communications2">" DDL Riforma Rai" Template:It icon Italian Ministry of Communications, Retrieved on 2007-10-10</ref>

In 1950, RAI became one of the 23 founding broadcasting organizations of the European Broadcasting Union.

History

Origins

The Unione Radiofonica Italiana (URI) was formed in 1924 with the backing of the Marconi Company following a model adopted in other European countries. URI made its inaugural broadcast — a speech by Benito Mussolini at Teatro Costanzi — on 5 October. Regular programming began the following evening, with a quartet performing Haydn's Quartet No. 7 in A major from the Palazzo Corradi. At 21.00 CET, Ines Donarelli Viviani announced for the first time: "URI—Unione Radiofonica Italiana Rome station 1RO 425 meters wavelength. To all those who are listening our greetings, good evening." Guglielmo Marconi's S.A. Radiofono—Società Italiana per le Radiocomunicazioni Circolari (Radiofono) held 85% of URI shares and Western Electric's Società Italiana Radio Audizioni Circolari (SIRAC) held the remaining 15%.

Under the provisions of Royal Decree No. 1067 of 8 February 1923, wireless broadcasting became a state monopoly under the control of the Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs; URI was commissioned to provide services for a minimum of six years pursuant to Royal Decree No. 2191 of 14 October 1924 "Concessione dei servizi radioauditivi circolari alla Società Anonima Unione Radiofonica Italiana". However, when URI's contract expired in 1927, it was succeeded under Royal Decree Law No. 2207 of 17 November 1927 by the partially nationalised Ente Italiano per le Audizioni Radiofoniche (EIAR), which became Radio Audizioni Italiane S.p.A. (RAI) with investment from Società Idroelettrica Piemontese (SIP) in 1944.

Post-war

During the reconstruction following World War II, much of RAI's early programming was influenced by the "Reithian" style of the BBC. The emphasis was on educational content. Programs like Non è mai troppo tardi and Un viaggio al Po introduced people to what life was like in other parts of the country, at a time when most people couldn't afford to travel.

Over the following years RAI made various changes to its services. Rai reorganized its radio stations in November 1946 into two national networks, Rete Rossa and Rete Azzurra. Rai added the culture-based Terzo Programma in October 1950. On 1 January 1952 the Rete Rossa became the Programma Nazionale (focusing on informational content) and the Rete Azzurra became the Secondo Programma (with a greater emphasis on entertainment). The three radio channels eventually became today's Rai Radio 1, Rai Radio 2, and Rai Radio 3.

Start of the television service

In 1954 the state-owned holding company Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) became the sole shareholder and RAI – now renamed RAI—Radiotelevisione italiana to reflect its extended responsibilities – finally began a regular television service. On 3 January at 11.00 CET, the first RAI television announcer presented the day's schedule, which was broadcast from the service's Milan headquarters and relay stations in Turin and Rome. At 14.30, the first regular programme in Italian television history was broadcast: Arrivi e partenze, hosted by Armando Pizzo and Mike Bongiorno. The evening's entertainment was a theatre performance, L'osteria della posta, written by Carlo Goldoni. 23.15 saw the start of the day's concluding programme, La Domenica Sportiva – the first edition of a weekly series which continues to this day.

2000s

In 2005, the government of Silvio Berlusconi proposed partial privatization of RAI by selling 20% ownership. This proposal was very controversial, in part because Berlusconi was the head of the leading private broadcaster Mediaset. Some critics claimed that Mediaset could become the buyer and thus increase its dominant position. However, after the revelation that RAI would lose €80m ($96m, £54m) in 2006, the privatization plan was suspended in October 2005.

On 17 May 2010, Raisat received a major upgrade and re-branded with a new logo and a new name. It and all of the sister channels dropped the sat part from the name and became Rai YoYo, Rai 5 (formerly known as Rai Extra), Rai Premium, and Rai Movie (formerly known as Raisat Cinema).

Management

RAI was originally the subsidiary of RAI Holding S.p.A. RAI Holding was absorbed into RAI as of 1 December 2004, per Article 21 of Law 112/04.

RAI is governed by a nine member Administrative Council. Seven of members are elected by a committee of the Italian Parliament. The other two (one of which is the President) are nominated by the largest shareholder: the Ministry of Economic Development. The Council appoints the Director-General. The Director-General and the members of the Administrative Council are appointed for a renewable three year term.

Presidents

Name Took office Left office
Arturo Carlo Jemolo April 20, 1945 August 9, 1946
Giuseppe Spataro August 9, 1946 May 17, 1951
Cristiano Ridomi May 17, 1951 March 11, 1954
Antonio Carrelli June 3, 1954 January 4, 1961
Novello Papafava January 4, 1961 March 25, 1964
Pietro Quaroni May 29, 1964 April 12, 1969
Aldo Sandulli April 23, 1969 February 18, 1970
Umberto delle Fave March 24, 1970 April 22, 1975
Beniamino Finocchiaro May 23, 1975 January 20, 1977
Paolo Grassi January 20, 1977 June 12, 1980
Sergio Zavoli June 12, 1980 October 23, 1986
Enrico Manca October 23, 1986 February 19, 1992
Walter Pedullà February 19, 1992 July 13, 1993
Claudio Demattè July 13, 1993 July 12, 1994
Letizia Moratti July 12, 1994 April 24, 1996
Giuseppe Morello April 24, 1996 July 10, 1996
Enzo Siciliano July 10, 1996 January 21, 1998
Roberto Zaccaria February 3, 1998 February 17, 2000
Roberto ZaccariaTemplate:Ref February 17, 2000 February 16, 2002
Vittorio Emiliani February 16, 2002 February 22, 2002
Antonio Baldassarre March 5, 2002 February 26, 2003
Paolo Mieli March 7, 2003 March 13, 2003
Lucia Annunziata March 13, 2003 May 4, 2004
Francesco AlberoniTemplate:Ref May 4, 2004 May 31, 2005
Sandro CurziTemplate:Ref June 1, 2005 July 30, 2005
Claudio Petruccioli July 31, 2005 March 25, 2009
Paolo Garimberti March 26, 2009 June 8, 2012
Anna Maria Tarantola June 8, 2012 present

General Directors

Name Took office Left office
Salvino Sernesi 1949 1953
Giovan Battista Vicentini 1954 1955
Rodolfo Arata 1956 1960
Ettore Bernabei January 5, 1961 September 18, 1974
Michele Principe May 23, 1975 January 25, 1977
Giuseppe Glisenti January 26, 1977 June 17, 1977
Pierantonino Bertè July 12, 1977 June 18, 1980
Villy De Luca June 19, 1980 July 21, 1982
Biagio Agnes July 29, 1982 February 1, 1990
Gianni Pasquarelli February 5, 1990 July 23, 1993
Gianni Locatelli July 23, 1993 August 3, 1994
Gianni Billia August 3, 1994 December 31, 1994
Raffaele Minicucci January 16, 1995 February 29, 1996
Aldo MateriaTemplate:Ref March 6, 1996 July 15, 1996
Franco Iseppi July 15, 1996 February 8, 1998
Pier Luigi Celli February 9, 1998 February 17, 2000
Pier Luigi CelliTemplate:Ref February 17, 2000 February 9, 2001
Claudio Cappon February 9, 2001 March 19, 2002
Agostino Saccà March 19, 2002 March 27, 2003
Flavio Cattaneo March 27, 2003 August 5, 2005
Alfredo Meocci August 5, 2005 June 20, 2006
Claudio Cappon June 22, 2006 April 2, 2009
Mauro Masi April 2, 2009 May 2, 2011
Lorenza Lei May 4, 2011 June 8, 2012
Luigi Gubitosi June 8, 2012 present





Notes:
Template:Note: Second term.
Template:Note: Interim.
Template:Note: Deputy director-general acting as director-general.

TV channels

Channels

Channel LCN on DVB-T Broadcast Daily Share 2013 Launched Description
Rai 1 001 National DTV
Satellite
18.1% January 3, 1954 generalist
Rai 2 002 National DTV
Satellite
6.9% November 4, 1961 generalist
Rai 3 003 National DTV
Satellite
7.4% December 15, 1979 generalist
Rai 4 021 National DTV
Satellite
July 14, 2008 series tv, movies and entertainment for young
Rai 5 023 National DTV
Satellite
November 26, 2010 culture and documentaries
Rai Gulp 042 National DTV
Satellite
June 1, 2007 kids/teens
Rai Movie 024 National DTV
Satellite
July 1, 1999 movies
Rai News24 048 National DTV
Satellite
April 26, 1999 news
Rai Premium 025 National DTV
Satellite
July 31, 2003 Rai's series tv
Rai Scuola 146 National DTV
Satellite
October 19, 2009 educational
Rai Sport 1 057 National DTV
Satellite
February 1, 1999 sports
Rai Sport 2 058 National DTV
Satellite
May 18, 2010 sports
Rai Storia 054 National DTV
Satellite
February 2, 2009 history's documentaries
Rai Yoyo 043 National DTV
Satellite
November 1, 2006 babies/kids
Rai HD 501 National DTV
Satellite
April 24, 2008 HD
Rai 3D National DTV
Satellite
3D
Rai Internazionale International
Satellite
Rai's programs for Italians abroad
Rai Med Satellite news and entertainment in Italian and Arabic language
Rai Nettuno Sat 1 Satellite higher education
Yes Italia International
Satellite
Italian culture
Rai Alto Adige Regional regional channel in Trentino-Alto Adige, in Italian language
Rai Ladinia Regional regional channel in Trentino-Alto Adige, in Ladin language
Rai Südtirol Regional regional channel in Trentino-Alto Adige, in German language
Rai Trst Regional regional channel in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, in Slovenian language
Rai Parlamento National DTV
Satellite
institutional channel about Parliament
Euronews National DTV
Satellite
European news

IPTV channels

On TV di FASTWEB

  • Rai On Cultura
  • Rai On Fiction
  • Rai On Fiction Live
  • Rai On News
  • Rai On Ragazzi
  • Rai On Spettacolo
  • Rai On Sport

Discontinued channels

  • RaiSat Album (30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Art (30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Fiction (30 July 2003)
  • RaiSat Smash Girls (1 August 2009)
  • RaiSat Gambero Rosso Channel (1 August 2009)
  • Rai Azzurri: UEFA Euro 2004 (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Doc: cultures, styles (1 June 2007)
  • Rai Futura: technologies, games, etc. (1 February 2007, broadcast on the same frequences of Rai Doc at settled times)
  • Rai Olimpia: 2004 Summer Olympics (2004, broadcast using Rai Utile frequencies)
  • Rai Utile (1 January 2008)
  • Rai Widescreen: 1998 FIFA World Cup (1999)

Radio channels

Main channels

  • Rai Radio 1: News and information
  • Rai Radio 2: Adult contemporary music and conversation
  • Rai Radio 3: Classical music and culture

Filodiffusione

  • Rai Radio FD 4: easy-listening music, formerly known as IV Canale
  • Rai Radio FD 5: classic and opera music, formerly known as V Canale

Other channels

  • Rai GR Parlamento: coverage of proceedings in the Italian Parliament
  • Rai Isoradio: for motorway users
  • Rai Sender Bozen Radio: German-language programmes for the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region
  • Radio Trst A: Slovene-language programmes for the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region

International

  • Rai Italia Radio: broadcasting 'the best of RAI' to the world.

Webradio

  • Rai webradio 6: featuring items from the radio archives
  • Rai webradio 7: Neapolitan music
  • Rai webradio 8: music from the web

News

TV

  • TG1 (on Rai 1)
  • TG2 (on Rai 2)
  • TG3 (on Rai 3)
  • Rai Parlamento
  • Rai Sport
  • Rai News
  • Televideo (teletext) (Televideo is RAI's teletext service, it's available pushing the button "teletext" on all RAI channels)

Radio

  • Giornale Radio Rai
    • GR1 (on Rai Radio 1)
    • GR2 (on Rai Radio 2)
    • GR3 (on Rai Radio 3)
  • Rai GR Parlamento

Local

  • TGR
    • TG Regione (TV)
    • GR Regione (Radio)

Headquarters and Centers of Television Production

Centers of Television Production

Seat Centers of Television Production Auditoriums/Theatres Studios
Rome CPTV Via Teulada, 66 9
Rome CP Saxa Rubra 16
Rome Studi Dear, Via Ettore Romagnoli, 30 6
Rome Teatro delle Vittorie 1 theatre
Rome Rai Auditorium of Foro Italico 1 auditorium
Milan CP corso Sempione, 27 3 auditoriums 5
Milan East End Studios via Mecenate, 76 4
Naples CP Viale Marconi, 9 1 auditorium 7
Turin CP via Verdi, 16 1 aduitorium 6
Turin Grattacielo Rai Corso Bolzano 5
Palermo CP Viale Strasburgo 4

Local offices

In every region and autonomous province of Italy, there is an RAI local office that produces local programs.

Foreign headquarters

There are RAI offices in foreign countries, which produce news reports that are broadcast live in Italy. These offices are in:

  • Brussels (to cover the European Union)
  • Paris
  • Berlin
  • London
  • New York
  • Beijing
  • Cairo
  • Jerusalem
  • Nairobi
  • Moscow
  • Rio de Janeiro

Logos

120px 120px 120px
1982–2000 2000–2010 2010-

See also

  • Television in Italy
  • Television licensing in Italy
  • Digital terrestrial television in Italy
  • Prix Italia

Footnotes

Template:Reflist

External links

Template:RAI Template:Italian television stations Template:European Broadcasting Union Members Template:Eurovision Song Contest Template:JNN

Template:Coord