Royal Hospital Chelsea
Template:EngvarB Template:Use dmy dates Template:CoordTemplate:Infobox Hospital The Royal Hospital Chelsea is a retirement home and nursing home for some 300 British soldiers who are unfit for further duty due to injury or old age, located on Royal Hospital Road in Chelsea, London, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. It is a true hospital in the original sense of the word – that is, a place where hospitality was provided. The residents in the Royal Hospital are referred to as "in-pensioners" (or more colloquially, as Chelsea pensioners).
The Royal Hospital Chelsea shares the garden of its historic grounds with Garden House School, a co-educational independent school for 3–11-year olds, housed at the Cavalry House on Turks Row, Chelsea, a Grade II Listed Building which is part of the redeveloped Duke of York's Headquarters.
The Royal Hospital was founded by King Charles II in 1682 as a retreat for veterans.<ref name=guide3>Guidebook, p. 3</ref> The provision of a hostel rather than the payment of pensions was inspired by Les Invalides in Paris.<ref name=guide3/>
The site for the Hospital was an area of Chelsea which held an incomplete building — "Chelsey College", a theological college founded by James I in 1609.<ref name=guide3/> The property was acquired by Sir Stephen Fox out of his own funds and Sir Christopher Wren was commissioned to design and erect the building.<ref name=guide3/> In the 20th century, the building was the inspiration for some aspects of the College Hall at RAF Cranwell.
The first patients included those injured at the Battle of Sedgemoor. Wren expanded his original design to add two additional quadrangles to the east and west of the central court; these were known respectively as the "Light Horse Court" and the "College Court".<ref name=guide4>Guidebook, p. 4</ref> Due to mismanagement by Lord Ranelagh, the Hospital Treasurer, the building was not completed until 1692.<ref name=guide4/>
Sir John Soane, who was clerk of work in the early part of the nineteenth century, designed and constructed a new infirmary building which was located to the west of the main building on the site of the current National Army Museum and destroyed by bombing during the Second World War.<ref name=guide4/> This was replaced by a modern infirmary which was located to the east of the main building and opened by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother in 1961.<ref name=guide4/>
In 2002, the Sovereign's Mace was presented to the hospital – up until then, the hospital had had no colours or distinctive device – the Mace is now carried at all the ceremonial events at the Hospital.<ref name=guide6>Guidebook, p. 6</ref>
The 1960s infirmary was demolished to make way for the Margaret Thatcher Infirmary which was built in the classical style and completed in 2008.
In March 2009 the first women in the Hospital's 317-year history were admitted as In-Pensioners. Dorothy Hughes (aged 85) was the first, soon followed by Winifred Phillips (aged 82). Hughes had joined the British Army in 1941 aged 18, later working as part of 450 Heavy Anti Aircraft Battery in the London Division. In 1945 the Battery was deployed near Dover to defend against V1 flying bomb attacks. She retired with the rank of Sergeant. Phillips trained as a nurse and later joined the Auxiliary Territorial Service in 1948 before enlisting in the Women's Royal Army Corps in 1949 while serving in Egypt. After 22 years service she retired with the rank of Warrant Officer Class 2.
The Royal Hospital Founder's Day takes place close to 29 May each year – the birthday of Charles II, and the date of his restoration as King in 1660. It is also known as Oak Apple Day, as it commemorates the escape of the future King following his defeat at the Battle of Worcester in 1651, when he hid in the Royal Oak to avoid capture by Parliamentary forces. On Founder's Day, in-pensioners of the Royal Hospital are reviewed by a member of the British Royal Family.
The statue of King Charles II
The 7' 6" (229 cm) statue of King Charles II which stands in the central court (the Figure Court) of the Hospital was cast in copper alloy by Grinling Gibbons; it was originally gilded but was bronzed in 1787.<ref name=guide9>Guidebook, p. 9</ref> In 2002, the statue was regilded to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee.
The Hospital's chapel was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and is a fine and rare example of Wren's pure ecclesiastical work: it rises Template:Convert high and was completed in 1687.<ref name=guide9/> The chapel contains a fine painting of the Resurrection in the half dome of the apse, painted by Sebastiano Ricci and his nephew Marco (who assisted with the painting at the Royal Hospital) and dates from the end of Queen Anne's reign.<ref name=guide9/> The Chapel was consecrated in August 1691, and services were formerly held twice daily. Nowadays services are confined to Sunday mornings.<ref name=guide9/>
The Great Hall
The Great Hall was also designed by Sir Christopher Wren and was originally intended as a dining hall. Just before 1800 the pensioners started dining in the wards and the hall was then used for recreational purposes. It was here that the Duke of Wellington lay in state in 1852. The hall reverted to its original use as a dining hall in 1955.<ref name=guide10>Guidebook, p. 10</ref>
Royal Hospital Chelsea Museum
The museum features military artefacts and memorabilia that were donated by deceased in-pensioners. The displays include items associated with the Duke of Wellington, and other uniforms, medals, weapons, paintings and models.<ref name=guide6/>
The Great Hall, the Chapel and the Museum as well as some of its courtyards are open to the public.<ref name=guide15>Guidebook, p. 15</ref>
The hospital maintains a 'military-based culture which puts a premium on comradeship'. The in-pensioners are formed into four companies, each headed by a Captain of Invalids (an ex-Army officer responsible for the 'day to day welfare, management and administration' of the pensioners under his charge).
Senior staff include the Governor and Lieutenant Governor (who are retired General officers), the Secretary (director of administration), the Physician & Surgeon, the Matron, the Quartermaster, the Chaplain and the Adjutant (an ex-Army officer of at least Lieutenant-Colonel rank who acts as the Hospital's 'chief operations officer').
Since 1702 the Royal Hospital has been governed by a Board of Commissioners. The ex-officio chairman of the board is HM Paymaster General (whose predecessor Sir Stephen Fox was instrumental in founding the Hospital in the seventeenth century). The purpose of the Board is 'to guide the development of The Royal Hospital, ensuring the care and well-being of the Chelsea Pensioners who live there and safeguarding the historic buildings and grounds, which it owns in trust'.
List of governors
The following is a list of those who have served as Governor:
- Brigadier General Thomas Stanwix 1714–1720
- Lieutenant General Charles Churchill 1720–1722
- Lieutenant General William Evans 1722–1740
- Field Marshal Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet 1740–1768
- Field Marshal Sir George Howard Template:Post-nominals 1768–1795
- Field Marshal The Marquess Townshend Template:Post-nominals 1795–1796
- General Sir William Fawcett Template:Post-nominals 1796–1804
- General Sir David Dundas Template:Post-nominals 1804–1820
- Field Marshal Sir Samuel Hulse Template:Post-nominals 1820–1837
- General Sir Edward Paget Template:Post-nominals 1837–1849
- General Sir George Anson Template:Post-nominals 1849
- General Sir Colin Halkett Template:Post-nominals 1849–1856
- Field Marshal Sir Edward Blakeney Template:Post-nominals 1856–1868
- Field Marshal Sir Alexander Woodford Template:Post-nominals 1868–1870
- General Sir John Pennefather Template:Post-nominals 1870–1872
- Lt-General Sir Sydney Cotton Template:Post-nominals 1872–1874
- Field Marshal Sir Patrick Grant Template:Post-nominals 1874–1895
- Field Marshal Sir Donald Stewart, 1st Baronet Template:Post-nominals 1895–1900
- Field Marshal Sir Henry Norman Template:Post-nominals 1901–1904
- Field Marshal Sir George White Template:Post-nominals 1905–1912
- General Sir Neville Lyttelton Template:Post-nominals 1912–1931
- General Sir Walter Braithwaite Template:Post-nominals 1931–1938
- General Sir Harry Knox Template:Post-nominals 1938–1943
- General Sir Clive Liddell Template:Post-nominals 1943–1949
- General Sir Bernard Paget Template:Post-nominals 1949–1956
- General Sir Cameron Nicholson Template:Post-nominals 1956–1961
- General Sir Frank Simpson Template:Post-nominals 1961–1969
- General Sir Charles Jones Template:Post-nominals 1969–1975
- General Sir Anthony Read Template:Post-nominals 1975–1981
- General Sir Robert Ford Template:Post-nominals 1981–1987
- General Sir Roland Guy Template:Post-nominals 1987–1993
- General Sir Brian Kenny Template:Post-nominals 1993–1999
- General Sir Jeremy Mackenzie Template:Post-nominals 1999–2006
- General The Lord Walker of Aldringham Template:Post-nominals 2006–2011
- General Sir Redmond Watt Template:Post-nominals 2011–Present
- Chelsea Flower Show
- Royal Hospital Kilmainham (equivalent in Dublin)
- Institution des Invalides de la Legion Etrangere (French Foreign Legion equivalent)
- Old soldiers' home (USA)
- Royal Hospital Chelsea website
- Selected Royal Hospital Chelsea Service Records available from the UK National Archives
- RHS Chelsea Flower Show official website
- Royal Hospital Chelsea Museum