Salzburg Cathedral

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Template:Infobox religious building Salzburg Cathedral (Template:Lang-de) is a seventeenth-century Baroque cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Salzburg in the city of Salzburg, Austria, dedicated to Saint Rupert and Saint Vergilius.<ref name="friedrich-4">Friedrich 2007, p. 4.</ref> Founded by Saint Rupert in 774 on the remnants of a Roman town, the cathedral was rebuilt in 1181 after a fire.<ref name="parsons-307">Parsons 2000, p. 307.</ref> In the seventeenth century, the cathedral was completely rebuilt in the Baroque style under Prince-Bishop Wolf Dietrich Raitenau to its present appearance.<ref name="parsons-307"/> Salzburg Cathedral still contains the baptismal font in which composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was baptized.<ref name="davenport-3">Davenport 1932, p. 3.</ref>

History

The first cathedral was built under Saint Vergilius of Salzburg, who might have used foundations by St. Rupert. The first Dom was recorded in 774. The so-called Virgil Dom was built from 767 to 774 and was 66 metres long and 33 metres wide.

Archbishop Arno (785 – 821) was the first to arrange renovations of the Dom, which was in place for less than 70 years. In 842, the building burned down after being struck by lightning. Three years later, the re-erection of the building started.

Under Archbishop Hartwig, a choir with a crypt was built towards West between 1000 and 1020. Under Archbishop Konrad I., the West-towers were built from 1106 to 1147.

This original church thus experienced at least three extensive building and rebuilding campaigns during the early Middle Ages, the final result of which was a somewhat ad hoc Romanesque basilica. In 1598, the basilica was severely damaged, and after several failed attempts at restoration and reconstruction, the building was finally ordered to be demolished by Prince-Bishop Wolf Dietrich Raitenau (Archbishop from 1587–1612). Wolf Dietrich was a patron and supporter of modern Italian Baroque architecture, having seen it from its origins in Italy and particularly Rome. Indeed, it was Wolf Dietrich who was also responsible for the building of the nearby Alten Residenz, which is today connected to the cathedral.

Wolf Dietrich hired the Italian architect Vincenzo Scamozzi to prepare a plan for a comprehensive new Baroque building. Construction did not begin however until Wolf Dietrich's successor, Markus Sitticus von Hohenems (Archbishop from 1612–19), in 1614 laid the cornerstone of the new cathedral. The present cathedral, designed by Santino Solari, who fundamentally changed the original Scamozzi plan was completed remarkably in less than 15 years, being finished by 1628. At its consecration on September 24, 1628, 12 choirs positioned in the marble galleries of the cathedral sang a Te Deum (the score of which is since lost) composed by Stefano Bernardi, the Kapellmeister to the Salzburg court. The present Salzburg Cathedral is built partially upon the foundations of the old basilica. Indeed, the foundation stones of the preceding church building may be seen in the Domgrabungen, an excavation site under the cathedral that also features mosaics and other artifacts found here when this location was the forum of the Roman city Juvavum. One other surviving relic that predates the baroque edifice is the 14th Century Gothic baptismal font. The relics of Saint Rupert were transferred here when the cathedral was completed.<ref name="butler">Butler 2003, p. 139.</ref>

The finished church is 466 feet long and 109 feet high at the crossing/dome. The baroque style of St. Rupert's can be seen in the choir and the nave.

The Salzburg Cathedral was damaged during World War II when a single bomb crashed through the central dome over the crossing. Repairs were somewhat slow to take place, but restoration was complete by 1959.

Exterior

Salzburg Cathedral is located adjacent to Residenzplatz and Domplatz in the Altstadt (Old Town) area of the city. The Domplatz is accessed by three open arcade arches in the north, south, and west. These "cathedral arches" unite the cathedral with the Salzburg Residenz and St. Peter's Abbey to form a unique self-contained square.<ref name="fr-6">Friedrich 2007, p. 6.</ref>

The Domplatz is dominated by the Maria Immaculata (Immaculate Mary) column, commissioned by Archbishop Sigismund von Schrattenbach and executed by the brothers Wolfgang and Johann-Baptist Hagenauer between 1766 and 1771.<ref name="fr-6"/> Modeled after similar columns in Vienna and Munich and constructed of marble and cast iron, the Maria Immaculata depicts the Virgin Mary enthroned on a mountain of clouds made of Untersberg marble and a globe.<ref name="salzburg-info">Template:Cite web</ref> The central Marian figure is surrounded on four sides by allegoric figures representing angels, the devil, wisdom, and the Church.<ref name="salzburg-info"/> According to a plaque on the side of the cathedral, the figure group shows reactions to the mystery of the Immaculate Conception—the angels are delighted, human wisdom vanishes, the envious devil growls, and the triumphant Church rejoices.<ref name="salzburg-info"/> When viewed from the center of the arcades at the back of Domplatz, the classicist column is positioned in the central axis of the cathedral and shows the central Marian figure surrounded by the angels on the cathedral façade and seems to wear the crown mounted on the building.<ref name="salzburg-info"/>

The body of the church is made of dark grey conglomerate; the ornamentation and façade are made of bright Untersberg marble.<ref name="fr-6"/> The richly decorated façade is framed by two towers and a curved gable. The north tower houses an old oven used for baking communion bread.<ref name="fr-6"/> The façade is divided into three horizontal sections.<ref name="visit">Template:Cite web</ref> The lower section has three high round arches or portals that provide access to three bronze doors.<ref name="fr-6"/> The portals are flanked by four large sculpted figures representing the diocesean and cathedral patrons. The mitred figures of Saint Rupert holding a salt barrel and Saint Virgilius holding a church were created c. 1660 by Bartholomäus van Opstal. The inside figures or Saint Peter holding keys and Saint Paul holding a sword were sculpted c. 1697 by Bernhard Michael Mandl, who also created all the pedestals.<ref name="fr-6"/><ref name="visit"/> The bases bear the coats of arms of the Prince Archbishop Guidobald von Thun and Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun.<ref name="visit"/>

The central section of the façade contains statues of the four evangelists—Saint Matthew, Saint Mark, Saint Luke, and Saint John—and represent the salvation offered through their preaching.<ref name="fr-7">Friedrich 2007, p. 7.</ref> The mantelpieces over the central windows contain a lion and an ibex, the animals depicted in the coats of arms above, and a golden crown that aligns with the Marien column in the Domplatz.<ref name="visit"/> The top section tympanum bears the coats of arms of the builders of the cathedral, Markus Sittikus and Paris Londron.<ref name="fr-7"/> The figure group on the pediment represents the Transfiguration of Jesus on Mount Tabor, showing Christ as Salvator Mundi, with Moses holding the tablets on the left and the prophet Elijah to the right.<ref name="fr-7"/> The three statues were created in 1660 by Tommaso di Garona, the mason who built the Residenz Fountain.<ref name="visit"/>

The three bronze gates inside the portals were erected in 1957 and 1958 and represent the three divine virtues (Göttliche Tugenden) of faith, hope, and love.<ref name="fr-7"/> The Tor des Glaubens (gate of faith) on the left was created by Toni Schneider-Manzell, the central Tor der Liebe (gate of love) was created by Giacomo Manz, and the Tor der Hoffnung (gate of hope) on the right was created by Ewald Matare.<ref name="visit"/><ref name="fr-7"/>

Gallery

References

Citations

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External links

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