St Peter upon Cornhill

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St Peter upon Cornhill is an Anglican church on the corner of Cornhill and Gracechurch Street in the City of London of medieval origin. It was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and rebuilt to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren. It is now a satellite church in the parish of St Helen's Bishopsgate and is used for staff training, bible studies and a youth club. The St Helen's church office controls access to St Peter's.

The church was used by the Tank Regiment after the Second World War, subsumed under St Helen's Bishopsgate.

Early history

The church of St Peter upon Cornhill stands on the highest point of the City of London. A tradition grew up that the church was of very ancient origin and was the seat of an archbishop until the establishment of Canterbury Cathedral at the end of the 6th century.<ref name=allen>Template:Cite book</ref>

The London historian John Stow, writing at the end of the 16th century, reported "there remaineth in this church a table whereon is written, I know not by what authority, but of a late hand, that King Lucius founded the same church to be an archbishop's see metropolitan, and chief church of his kingdom, and that it so endured for four hundred years". The "table" (tablet) seen by Stow was destroyed when the medieval church was burnt in the Great Fire,<ref name=newcourt>Template:Cite book</ref> but before this time a number of writers had recorded what it said. The text of the original tablet as printed by John Weever in 1631 began:

Be hit known to al men, that the yeerys of our Lord God an clxxix [AD 179]. Lucius the fyrst christen kyng of this lond, then callyd Brytayne, fowndyd the fyrst chyrch in London, that is to sey, the Chyrch of Sent Peter apon Cornhyl, and he fowndyd ther an Archbishoppys See, and made that Chirch the Metropolitant, and cheef Chirch of this kingdom...

A replacement, in the form of an inscribed brass plate, was set up after the Great Fire<ref name=newcourt/> and still hangs in the church vestry today. The text of the brass plate has been printed several times, for example by George Godwin in 1839,<ref name=godwin/> and an engraving of it was included in Robert Wilkinson's Londina Illustrata (1819-25).

In 1444 a "horsemill" was given to St Peter's. The bells of St Peter are mentioned in 1552, when a bell foundry in Aldgate was asked to cast a new bell.

Present building

The church was badly damaged in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The parish tried to patch it up, but between 1677 and 1684 it was rebuilt to a design by Christopher Wren at a cost of £5,647.Template:Citation needed The new church was Template:Convert shorter than its predecessor, the eastern end of the site having been given up to widen Gracechurch Street.

St Peter's was described by Ian Nairn as having "three personalities inextricably sewn into the City". The eastern frontage to Gracechurch Street is a grand stone-faced composition, with five arched windows between Ionic pilasters above a high stylobate. The pilasters support an entablature; above that is a blank attic storey, then a gable with one arched window flanked by two round ones. The north and south sides are stuccoed and much simpler in style. Unusually, shallow 19th-century shops have survived towards Cornhill, squeezed between the church and the pavement. The tower is of brick, its leaded cupola topped with a small spire, which is in turn surmounted by a weather vane in the shape of St. Peter’s key.<ref name=godwin>Template:Cite book</ref><ref name=city>Bradley, Simon and Pevsner, Nikolaus. London: The City Churches. New Haven, Yale, 1998. ISBN 0-300-09655-0 p.123</ref>

The interior is aisled, with square arcade piers<ref name=malc>Template:Cite book</ref> resting on the medieval pier foundations. The nave is barrel vaulted, while the aisles have transverse barrel vaults.<ref name=city/> Unusually for a Wren church, there is a screen marking the division between nave and chancel. This was installed at the insistence of the rector at the time of rebuilding, William Beveridge.

Charles Dickens mentions the churchyard in "Our Mutual Friend". A theatre group called The Players of St Peter were formed at the church in 1946 and performed there until 1987. They are now based at St Clement Eastcheap where its members perform medieval mystery plays each November.

The church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950.

Features and points of interest

Music

In June 1834, the 14-year-old Elizabeth Mounsey became the organist of St. Peter's.

The organ in the gallery of St Peter's has an autographed souvenir quote from a Bach Passacaglia on display, which Felix Mendelssohn gave to Elizabeth Mounsey, on 30 September 1840 after he gave an impromptu performance the church's organ.

Jowett

In the 1830s, the notable missionary William Jowett was a lecturer at the church.

Burials

  • John Waugh (bishop)

See also

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  • List of churches and cathedrals of London
  • List of Christopher Wren churches in London

Notes

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External links

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Template:Churches in the City of London