Tomb of Eurysaces the Baker
thumb, with the Aqua Claudia behind; the nine cylinders may represent grain measures or mixing vessels]] The tomb of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces the baker is one of the largest and best-preserved freedman funerary monuments in Rome. Its sculpted frieze is a classic example of the "plebeian style" in Roman sculpture. Eurysaces built the tomb for himself and perhaps also his wife Atistia around the end of the Republic (ca. 50-20 BC). Located in a prominent position just outside today's Porta Maggiore, the tomb was transformed by its incorporation in the Aurelian Wall; a tower subsequently erected by Honorius covered the tomb, the remains of which were exposed upon its removal by Gregory XVI in 1838.<ref name="PlatnerAshby"/> What is particularly significant about this extravagant tomb is that it was built by a freedman, a former slave.
Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces
Although there is no conclusive statement on the monument that Eurysaces was a freedman - there is no "L" for libertus in the inscription - there are a number of reasons for believing that this was the case. His name takes the form of a Roman praenomen and nomen followed by a Greek cognomen, nomenclature typical for a freedman, combining as it does the identity of the former owning family with that of the individual when a slave. The inscription also lacks the filiation usual for the freeborn. The banausic and labour-intensive activities commemorated, those of baking, are not usually celebrated by the freeborn upper classes. The unusual form of the monument and of its inscription have also been used to locate Eurysaces as a nouveau riche parvenu in the manner of Trimalchio, with his "naive ostentation" vulgarly imitative of elite culture.<ref name="Petersen">Template:Cite journal</ref>
Burial within the pomerium or sacred boundary of the city was generally prohibited. Although the precise extent of the pomerium at the various stages of its history is uncertain, it is believed to have later been coterminous with the Aurelian Walls, perhaps extending to the area of the Porta Maggiore after its expansion by Claudius. Streets of tombs in a prominent position just outside the city gates are known from Pompeii as well as the Via Appia. Eurysaces' tomb, at the junction of the Via Praenestina and Via Labicana just before entering Rome, was in a particularly prominent position, and its trapezoidal form was likely dictated by the space available.<ref name="Claridge">Template:Cite book</ref> Other burial complexes in the vicinity are known, including the columbarium of Statilius Taurus, consul at the time of Augustus, with over seven hundred loculi or burial niches; and the first century BC tomb of the Societas Cantorum Graecorum (Association of Greek Singers).<ref name="Petersen"/> An inscription relating to another baker, Ogulnius, has also been found in local excavations.<ref group="note">OGULNIUS PISTOR SIMI(laginarius) / AMICUS [Eurysacis?] or "Ogulnius, baker, flour-dealer, friend [of Eurysaces?]"</ref>
The tomb, dwarfed by the later Aqua Claudia, rises to a height of some thirty-three feet. Of concrete faced with travertine on a tufa base, it stands as a monument both to Eurysaces and to the profession of baking. Because only a small percent of the Roman population was literate, the inscriptions are below a frieze decorated with scenes from baking, to further emphasize the theme. The incorporation of the cylinders, perhaps imitating kneading-machines or grain-measuring vessels as suggested above furthers the association with bakery. This is very different from the classical Roman styles of tombs, and thus, allows Eurysaces' tomb to stand out. It was later discovered that these unusual holes are the exact size of one unit of grain, so some people believe that Eurysaces was also creating a practical contribution to his society.
The surviving part of the inscription reads "EST HOC MONIMENTVM MARCEI VERGILEI EVRYSACIS PISTORIS REDEMPTORIS APPARET," or in English, "This is the monument of Marcus Vergilius Eurysaces, baker, contractor, public servant."<ref name="PlatnerAshby">Template:Cite book</ref> While the final word in this quote, "Apparet", is often translated as public servant, the actual Latin word for a public servant is Apparitor. Apparet is a verb meaning to appear or make apparent, this translation however does not seem to fit the rest of the inscription. The word Apparet is yet to be translated within the context of this quotation.
A relief representing various stages of bread production runs along the top of the tomb. The relief depicts, on the south side, the delivery and grinding of grain and sifting of flour; on the north, the mixing and kneading of dough, forming of round loaves, and baking in a domed "pizza-type" oven; and, on the west, the stacking of loaves in baskets and their being taken for weighing.<ref name="Petersen"/><ref name="Claridge"/>
During demolition of the superimposed late antique fortifications by Pope Gregory XVI in 1838, a full-length relief portrait was discovered of a man and woman in toga and palla (taken to the Palazzo dei Conservatori); along with an inscription honouring one Atistia, a good wife whose remains were placed in a breadbasket; and an urn taking the form of such a breadbasket.<ref name="Petersen"/><ref group="note">FUIT ATISTIA UXOR MIHEI / FEMINA OPITUMA VEIXSIT / QUOIUS CORPORIS RELIQUAE / QUOD SUPERANT SUNT IN / HOC PANARIO or "Atistia was my wife; a most excellent lady in life; the surviving remains of her body are in this breadbasket"</ref> Theft of the female head from the relief in 1934 and uncertainty as to the present whereabouts of the urn, believed to be somewhere in the Museo Nazionale Romano, mean their study is now conducted from excavation drawings and early photographs.<ref name="Petersen"/> Reconstructions generally relate these items to the tomb on the grounds of their style, subject matter, and findspot, with Atistia becoming Eurysaces' wife, and the double relief and inscription occupying the upper register of the now lost east facade of the tomb.<ref name="Petersen"/>
This tomb is one of many lavish tombs created by freedmen. These men were at first slaves, but from the help of their masters, were able to buy their freedom and begin their own livelihoods. They were proud of their freedom and earnings. Because of this, they many times created such lavish funerary monuments, such as Eurysaces' tomb. These freedmen had no family lines, which were important in Roman society. Therefore, these tombs may have been attempts at beginning a family history for future generations to appreciate.
- Pyramid of Cestius