Bologna Centrale railway station
Bologna Centrale is a railway station in Bologna, Italy. It is at the southern end of the Milan-Bologna high-speed line, which opened on 13 December 2008 and the northern end of the Bologna–Florence Direttissima, opened on 22 April 1934. A new high-speed line to Florence opened on 13 December 2009.
The station is the fifth busiest in Italy, with an annual ridership of 58 million.<ref name=gs1>Template:Cite web</ref>
The first Bologna Centrale station was constructed in 1859; however, there are sketchy and unclear testimonies regarding its history. A new station was built twelve years later on the same grounds.
The station as we know it today was designed and built by architect Gaetano Ratti, who had trained in the local Clementine Academy. Inspired by the neoclassical style, its distinctive 15th century façade opens in nine entrance doors. The main passenger building is reminiscent of renaissance Florentine architecture. Until the 1940s it was topped by a clock tower with marble pillars, but the tower was damaged by bombing in World War II and was not rebuilt.
The original design called for a rectangular shaped two-faced building, with a marble external façade and steel internal one. Subsequent extension works, such as the 1926 building of the westbound platforms, shaped the station into the “L” form typical of expanded transit stations. Later, the introduction of new platforms on the eastern half (1934) brought another change to the station's configuration.
The following services call at the station (incomplete):
- High speed services (Eurostar) Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome
- High speed services (Eurostar) Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples
- Intercity services (Intercity) Trieste - Venice - Padua - Bologna - Florence - Rome - Naples
- Night train (EuroNight) Vienna - Klagenfurt - Venice - Bolgona - Florence - Rome
- Night train (Intercity Night) Trieste - Venice - Padua - Bologna - Rome
- Regional services (Treno regionale) Bologna - Ferrara - Rovigo - Padua - Venice
- Regional services Voghera - Piacenza - Parma - Modena - Bologna
- Local services Bologna - Imola - Forli - Cesena - Rimini
- Local services (Treno regionale) Bologna - Ferrara - Rovigo - Monselice - Padua
Today, Bologna Central Station is the fifth-busiest in Italy in terms of passenger movements (about 58 million passengers per year). It is, however, one of the busiest when measured by train traffic, being tied with Rome Termini Station for the number of trains per day (about 800) being one of the main railway junctions in Italy.<ref name=gs>GrandiStazioni</ref>
A new three-level railway station for high-speed trains, 642 metres long and 56 metres wide, is being built under the current station to a design by Arata Isozaki and Andrea Maffei, with parking at 7 metres below the surface, a shopping arcade at 15 m below and four high-speed train platforms at 23 m below. In July 2008 Andrea Maffei Architects, Arata Isozaki & Associates, Ove Arup & Partners and M + T & Partners won a competition to design the station. The underground platforms were opened for revenue service on 9 June 2013. The passenger drop-off facilities will be provided in a later phase. Together with the reinstatement of four surface tracks removed to facilitate construction, the project is due to be completed by 2016. The expected at design phase cost was €340 million.
1980 terrorist bombing
On 2 August 1980 at 10.25 am, an improvised explosive device (IED) made with 20 kilograms of a TNT mixture was detonated inside Bologna's main railway station. The IED was contained in a suitcase, which was placed near the wall inside a waiting lobby. The explosion killed 85 people and injured more than 200. The wing of the station in which the bomb was detonated has been reconstructed but, as a testimony to the victims of the attack, the original pavement was maintained as well as a deep crack in the main wall. Moreover, the station main clock is forever stopped at the exact time of the explosion. The attack is also known in Italy as the Strage di Bologna, the Bologna massacre.
The Italian government immediately accused the Italian leftist militant group Red Brigades for the attack; however this was denied by the group, and no one ever claimed responsibility. Over the years, official investigation has determined that the attack was carried out by a small neo-fascist group. Many conspiracy theories regarding this event have been entertained, including a link between this act of terrorism and the Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870 disaster.
- History of rail transport in Italy
- List of railway stations in Emilia-Romagna
- Rail transport in Italy
- Railway stations in Italy
- 11 March 2004 Madrid attacks
- List of terrorist incidents
- Bologna metropolitan railway service