Arap Mosque

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Arap Mosque (Turkish: Arap Camii, literally Arab Mosque) is a mosque in the Karaköy (historically Galata) quarter of Istanbul, Turkey. The building was originally a Roman Catholic church erected in 1325 by the friars of the Dominican Order, near or above an earlier chapel dedicated to Saint Paul (Template:Lang-it) in 1233.<ref name=mw79>Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 79</ref> Although the structure was altered during the Ottoman period, it is the only example of religious Gothic Architecture remaining in Istanbul.

The church was converted into a mosque by the Ottomans between 1475 and 1478, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II, and became known as the Galata Mosque. It was later given by Sultan Bayezid II to the Muslim Arab refugees from Al-Andalus who escaped the Spanish Inquisition in 1492 and settled in the Galata neighborhood of Istanbul (hence its current name, Arab Mosque.)

Location

The building lies in Istanbul, in the district of Beyo?lu, in the neighborhood of Karaköy (medieval Galata), on Galata Mahkemesi Sokak, not far from the northern shores of the Golden Horn. It is surrounded by artisan shops.

History

Byzantine period

During the sixth century a Byzantine church, possibly dedicated to Saint Irene, was built here.<ref name="mw79"/> Of this building, only part of a wall survives today.<ref name="mw79"/>

The tradition which affirms that a mosque was built on this site during the Arab Siege of Constantinople (717–18) by Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik (a commander and cousin of Caliph Umar II) must be considered a legend,<ref name="mw79"/> as the Arabs laid siege to the land walls of Constantinople on the southern part of the Golden Horn and never penetrated into the citadel of Galata (Pera) at the northern shore. 180px In 1233, during the Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204–1261) after the Fourth Crusade, this church was replaced with a small chapel, dedicated to Saint Paul (San Paolo).

In 1299, the Dominican Friar Guillaume Bernard de Sévérac bought a house near the church, where he established a monastery with 12 friars. In 1307, Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II Palaiologos moved the Dominicans of Constantinople to the Genoese-held suburb of Pera.<ref name="mw79"/>

A new, much larger church was built near or above the chapel of San Paolo in 1325. Thereafter the church was officially dedicated to San Domenico,<ref name=ey102>Eyice (1955), p. 102</ref> but local residents continued to use the ancient denomination.<ref name=ja599>Janin (1953), p. 599</ref> In 1407 Pope Gregory XII, in order to ensure the maintenance of the church, conceded indulgences to the visitors of the monastery of San Paolo.<ref name=ja600>Janin (1953), p. 600</ref>

Ottoman period

thumb After the Fall of Constantinople, according to the Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Genoa, the church, which by that time was known by the Turks under the name of Mesa Domenico, remained in Genoese hands, but between 1475 and 1478 it was transformed, with minor modifications, into a mosque by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II and became known as Galata Camii ("Galata Mosque") or Cami-i Kebir ("Great Mosque"). The friars were transferred in the friary of San Pietro in Galata in 1476, while all the altar clothes had already been brought to Genoa, and the archives to Caffa.<ref name=ja600>Janin (1953), p. 600</ref>

Towards the end of the century Sultan Bayezid II assigned the building to those Muslims of Spain (Andalusia) who had fled the Spanish Inquisition and migrated to Istanbul; hence the present name Arap Camii (Arab Mosque).<ref name="mw79"/><ref name=ja599>Janin (1953), p. 599</ref> Sultan Mehmet III repaired the building, and towards the end of seventeenth century the houses which encroached upon the mosque were pulled down in order to avoid noise.<ref name=mw80>Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 80</ref>

After the 1731 Great Fire of Galata, in 1734/35 the mother of Mahmut I, Saliha Sultan renovated the building, changing the windows and the portal from the Gothic to the Ottoman style.<ref name="mw80"/> After another fire in 1808, in the mid-nineteenth century, the daughter of Mahmud II, Adile Sultan, repaired the mosque again and in 1868 built a ?adirvan (fountain for ritual ablutions before praying) in the courtyard.<ref name=ey102/>

Between 1913 and 1919, Giridli Hasan Bey extensively restored the edifice again.<ref name="mw80"/> During the replacement of the wooden floor, several Genoese tombstones dating back to between the first half of fourteenth and up to the middle of the fifteenth centuries were discovered. They were brought to the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.<ref name="mw80"/><ref name=ma320>Mamboury (1953), p. 320</ref>

At the beginning of the 2010s, the mosque underwent an extensive restoration, which was finished in 2013.

Description

Erected according to the model of the Italian mendicant order churches of that period,<ref name="mw79"/> the church had a three-nave rectangular base, with squared-off eastern end and a square sanctuary which is covered by ribbed groin vaults.<ref name=ey102>Eyice (1955), p. 102</ref>

thumb

The Gothic-style portal, lancet windows and the prominent bell tower (which has been transformed into a minaret by the addition of a conical roof) distinguished the building from the Byzantine churches in the city. On the other side, the technique used for the brickwork was local, and alternated small courses of bricks and ashlar.<ref name="mw79"/>

The NE nave was possibly flanked by a series of chapels, each of them belonging to a noble Genoese family. One of them was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and another to Saint Nicholas.<ref name="mw80"/> As a whole, the building resembled the churches of Chieri and Finale Ligure in Italy.<ref name=ma319>Mamboury (1953), p. 319</ref>

The flat wooden roof and rather pretty wooden galleries date from the restoration in 1913-1919. On this occasion, the height of the building was lowered, and many Genoese headstones were found.<ref name="mw80"/> During the same restorations, rests of paintings were also discovered near the Mihrab, but were covered again.<ref name=ey102>Eyice (1955), p. 102</ref>

In the passage under the belfry, moldings are still visible, as well as fragments of stones with armorial bearings which were once placed along the wall.<ref name=ma319>Mamboury (1953), p. 319</ref> On the north side of the building there is a large and attractive courtyard with a ?ad?rvan.

Today, Arap Camii is the largest mosque on the Galata side of the Golden Horn. It is one of the most interesting mosques in the city due to its early Italian Gothic architectural style and church belfry, which has practically remained unaltered even after being converted into a minaret.

References

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Sources

External links

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Template:Mosques in Turkey Template:Churches and Monasteries of Constantinople Template:Churches-Mosques in Istanbul