Baths of Zeuxippus
- "Zeuxippos" redirects here. For other uses of this name, see Zeuxippus (disambiguation).
The Baths of Zeuxippus were popular public baths in the city of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. They were built between 100 to 200, destroyed by the Nika revolt of 532 and then rebuilt several years later.<ref name="War">Ward-Perkins, B. p. 935</ref> They were so called because they were built upon the site where a Temple of Jupiter (Zeus) had formerly existed.<ref name="lo">Gilles, P. p. 70</ref> They were built around 500 yards south of the much older baths of Achilles of the earlier Greek Acropolis in Byzantion. The baths were famed primarily for the many statues that were built within, and the famous people they each represented. However, they were later used for military purposes, during the seventh century. Excavations of the site and the Baths were made in 1928.
The original baths, which were founded and built by Septimius Severus,<ref name="Bury" /> and decorated under Constantine I<ref name="epo">Wornum, R.N.</ref> were adorned with numerous mosaics and over eighty statues,<ref name="War" /> mostly those of historical figures, with Homer, Hesiod, Plato, Aristotle, Julius Caesar, Demosthenes, Aeschines and Virgil all among them,<ref name="Bury">Bury, J.B. p. 55</ref> as well as the figures of gods and mythological heroes;.<ref name="Anci">Müller, K.O.; Welcker, F.G. p. 208</ref> These statues were taken from various places worldwide, including regions such as Asia and the surrounding areas, Rome, Greece and Asia Minor.<ref name="JAS">Evans, J.A.S. p. 30</ref> The Baths did, indeed, follow a trend of architecture during the period; places such as the Palace of the Senate, that of the Forums, the Palace of Lausus were all adorned with similar statues, of heroes (mythological and not), historical figures, and powerful people, becoming part of a contemporary form of artful architecture.<ref name="Ferd">Gregorovius, F.; Hamilton, A. p. 80</ref>
For a relatively small fee, entrance could be gained by any member of the general public to the Bath complex. While the area was obviously primarily used for public bathing, one could exercise and enjoy a variety of recreational activities. Attendants were paid to oversee these activities, and the happenings of the complex, enforcing opening and closing times, and the rules of conduct. Men and women were not allowed to bathe together; they would either be in separate baths, or bathe at different times of the day.<ref name="daily">Rautman, M.L. p. 77</ref>
The popularity of the Baths of Zeuxippus was very great among the citizens, despite the numerous number of baths that had been available for public access at the time in Constantinople, and therefore, the great competition that existed in that commercial area. Even the likes of clergy and monks were seen there, despite the insistence by their superiors that the baths were places of impious behaviour.<ref name="daily" />
The 12th century scholar Zonaras tells of how Severus connected the baths to the Hippodrome and, in doing so, built it on the site of the Temple of Jupiter. However, Leontius, who was more accurate in his writings (which also predate those of Zonaras), instead asserted that the baths were not actually joined to the Hippodrome, but was simply close to it:
In addition to this, the Baths of Zeuxippus were also close (most probably adjacent) to the Great Palace grounds.<ref name="Per">Tafur, P. p. 225</ref> This evidences their popularity, as such a location would have attracted many people, being in such great proximity to such significant places. The square of the Augustaeum and the basilica of Hagia Sophia were also close to the Baths.
The map to the right shows the Baths' approximate location within Constantinople, as determined by excavations made there. As can be seen, the Baths were roughly quadrangular in shape, and were, indeed, very close to, or even "connected" to the Palace, as Zonaras indicated.
Destruction and later use
As a result of the Nika revolt of 532, which constituted the worst uprising Constantinople had seen at the time, and which left half of the city in ruins and thousands of people dead, the original Baths of Zeuxippus were destroyed in blazing fire.<ref name="War" /> While Justinian took action to rebuild the Baths, he could not recreate or restore the statues or the antiquities that were lost in 532.<ref name="Bury" />
Soon after this however, in the early 7th century, as a result of extreme military and political pressure on the Byzantine Empire, public bathing changed from being a common luxury to a rare and infrequent one, and many public facilities and venues began to be used for the austere purposes of the military.<ref name="daily" /> They are last attested as being used as baths in 713, before being converted to other uses: part of the building became the prison known as Noumera, while another part appears to have been used as a silk workshop.<ref name="ODB">Kazhdan (1991), p. 2226</ref>
Almost 1,000 years later, in 1556, the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan built the Haseki Hürrem Sultan Hamam? on the same grounds. Later still, in 1927-1928, excavations were made at the site, and many historical relics were recovered, such as earthenware and glazed pottery, giving unique insights into the architectural designs and social interests of the people and culture of Constantinople at the time.<ref name="ODB"/><ref name="archa">Zeuxippus Ware</ref>
Most particular of the objects found at the site were two statues which were inscribed with the words Hekabe and Aeschenes [sic] on their bases, giving rise to the theory that tells of how Christodorus of Coptus effectively wrote the six epigrams on the many statues of the Baths, and lending further plausibility to the writings of both Zonaras and Leontius.<ref name="John" />
Christodorus of Coptus, an Egyptian poet and writer wrote a lengthy (416 lines long) hexameter piece of poetry inspired by the glory of the statues housed within the halls of the Baths of Zeuxippus. This poem actually consisted of a number of short epigrams (six in total), each focusing on one or a small group of statues within the Baths, designed to combine to form one work. While it has been suggested that the epigrams of Christodorus of Coptus may actually have been inscribed on the (bases) of the statues themselves, this is unlikely because of his use of the ekphrastic medium, and the presence of the past tense in the text.<ref name="John" >Johnson, S.F. p. 170</ref>
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