Bosphorus Bridge

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Template:Infobox bridge

The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge or simply the First Bridge (Template:Lang-tr) is one of two suspension bridges spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Bo?aziçi) in Istanbul, Turkey; thus connecting Europe and Asia (the other one is the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, which is called the Second Bosphorus Bridge.) The bridge is located between Ortaköy (on the European side) and Beylerbeyi (on the Asian side).

It is a gravity anchored suspension bridge with steel towers and inclined hangers.<ref name=KGM/> The aerodynamic deck hangs on zigzag steel cables. It is Template:Convert<ref name=KGM>General Directorate of Highways: Project information about the Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish)</ref> long with a deck width of Template:Convert.<ref name=KGM/> The distance between the towers (main span) is Template:Convert<ref name=KGM/> and the total height of the towers is Template:Convert.<ref name=KGM/> The clearance of the bridge from sea level is Template:Convert.<ref name=KGM/>

The Bosphorus Bridge was the 4th longest suspension bridge span in the world (and the longest outside the United States) when it was completed in 1973. At present, it is the 13th longest suspension bridge span in the world.

History

File:Pont du Bosphore, Istanbul.jpg
Since April 2007, a fully computerized LED lighting system of changing colours and patterns, developed by Philips, illuminates the bridge at night.

The idea of a bridge crossing the Bosphorus dates back to antiquity. For Emperor Darius I The Great of Persia (522 BC - 485 BC), as recorded by the Greek writer Herodotus in his Histories, Mandrocles of Samos once engineered a pontoon bridge that stretched across the Bosphorus, linking Asia to Europe, so that Darius could pursue the fleeing Scythians as well as move his army into position in the Balkans to overwhelm Macedon. The first project for a permanent bridge across the Bosphorus was proposed to Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II by the Bosphorus Railroad Company in 1900, which included a rail link between the continents.

The decision to build a bridge across the Bosphorus was taken in 1957 by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. For the structural engineering work, a contract was signed with the British firm Freeman Fox & Partners in 1968. The bridge was designed by the renowned British civil engineers Sir Gilbert Roberts and William Brown who also designed the Humber Bridge, Severn Bridge, Forth Road Bridge, Auckland Harbour Bridge and the Volta River Bridge. The construction started in February 1970, the ceremonies were attended by President Cevdet Sunay and Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel and was carried out by the Turkish firm Enka Construction & Industry Co. along with the co-contractors Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Company. (England) and Hochtief AG (Germany). Thirty-five engineers and 400 men worked on the project.

The bridge was completed on 30 October 1973, one day after the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Republic of Turkey, and opened by President Fahri Korutürk and Prime Minister Naim Talu. The cost of the bridge was US$200 million ($Template:Formatprice in 2021 dollarsTemplate:Inflation-fn).

At the time the bridge was opened, much was made of its being the first bridge between Europe and Asia since the pontoon bridge of Xerxes in 480 BCE. That bridge, however, spanned the Hellespont (Dardanelles), some distance away from the Bosphorus.

Current status

Transportation

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The bridge highway has a total width of six lanes (eight including the emergency lanes.)<ref name=KGM/> Each direction has three lanes for vehicular traffic plus one emergency lane and one sidewalk.<ref name=KGM/> On weekday mornings, commuter traffic flows mostly westbound to the European part, so four of the six lanes run westbound and only two eastbound. Conversely, on weekday evenings, four lanes are dedicated to eastbound traffic and two lanes only to westbound.

In the first four years, pedestrians could walk over the bridge, reaching it with elevators inside the towers on both sides. No pedestrians or commercial vehicles like trucks are allowed to use the bridge today.

Today, around 180,000 vehicles pass daily in both directions, with almost 85% being automobiles. On 29 December 1997, the one-billionth vehicle passed the bridge. Fully loaded, the bridge sags about Template:Convert in the middle of the span.

The Bosphorus Bridge is a toll bridge, and a toll plaza with 13 toll booths is situated near the bridge on the Asian side. A toll is charged for passing from Europe to Asia, but not for passing in the reverse direction. Since 1999, some of the toll booths (#9 - #13), located to the far left as motorists approach them, are unmanned and equipped only with a remote payment system (Turkish: OGS) in order to speed up traffic. In addition to OGS, another toll pay system with special contactless smart cards (Turkish: KGS) was put in service for use at specific toll booths in 2005. Since April 3, 2006, toll booths accept no cash but only OGS or KGS. An OGS device or KGS card can be obtained at various stations before reaching the toll plazas of highways and bridges. In 2006 the toll was 3.00 TL or about $2.00.

Since April 2007, a fully computerized LED lighting system of changing colours and patterns, developed by Philips, illuminates the bridge at night.

Historical incidents

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File:E6 1.000 TL arka yüz.jpg
Bosphorus Bridge on the reverse of the 1000 lira banknote (1978–1986)

The Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon, organized annually in October, starts from the Anatolian side of Istanbul, crosses the Bosphorus via the bridge, and ends on the European side. During the marathon, the bridge is closed to vehicular traffic.

Visitors to Istanbul in October can sign up for the 'fun run' at many points round the city and take the opportunity to cross the bridge on foot. Many take picnics to enjoy the view.

The bridge was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 1000 lira banknotes of 1978-1986.

On 15 May 2005 at 7.00 a.m. local time, U.S. tennis star Venus Williams played a show game with Turkish standout ?pek ?eno?lu on the bridge, the first tennis match ever to be played on two continents.<ref name=Williams/><ref name=Argus/> The event was organized as a promotion ahead of the 2005 WTA Istanbul Cup and lasted five minutes.<ref name=Williams/> After the exhibition, they both threw a tennis ball into the Bosphorus.<ref name=Williams>Template:Cite news</ref><ref name=Argus>Template:Cite web</ref>Template:Dead link

On 17 July 2005 at 10.30 a.m. local time, British Formula One driver David Coulthard drove his Red Bull racing car on the bridge first from the European side to the Asian side, and then, after turning with a spectacular powerslide at the toll plaza, back to the European side for show.<ref name=Motoring/><ref name=BBC/> He parked his car in the garden of Dolmabahçe Palace where his ride had started.<ref name=Motoring>Template:Cite news</ref> While crossing the bridge with his Formula 1 car, Coulthard was picked up by the automatic surveillance system and charged with a fine of 20 Euros because he passed through the toll booths without payment.<ref name=BBC>Template:Cite web</ref> His team agreed to pay for him.<ref name=BBC/>

On 5 November 2013, World No. 1 golfer Tiger Woods, who came to Turkey for the 2013 Turkish Airlines Open golf tournament to be held between November 7 and 10 and was brought to the bridge by helicopter, made a couple of show shots on the bridge hitting balls from the Asian side to the European side at one of the bridge direction, which was closed to traffic for about one hour.

See also

  • Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, also called the Second Bosphorus Bridge, located about 5 km north of the Bosphorus Bridge.
  • Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, also called the Third Bosphorus Bridge, currently under construction.
  • Marmaray, the Bosphorus undersea railway tunnel, completed in October 2013.
  • Eurasia Tunnel, the Bosphorus undersea road tunnel, currently under construction.
  • Turkish Straits

Notes and references

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External links

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Template:Fifty civil engineering feats in Turkey Template:Bridges in Turkey