Elephant of the Bastille
The Elephant of the Bastille was a monument in Paris which existed between 1813 and 1846. Originally conceived in 1808 by Napoleon, the colossal statue was intended to be created out of bronze and placed in the Place de la Bastille, but only a plaster full-scale model was built. At 24 m (78 ft) in height the model itself became a recognisable construction and was immortalised by Victor Hugo in his novel Les Misérables (1862) in which it is used as a shelter by the street urchin Gavroche. It was built at the site of the Bastille and although part of the original construction remains, the elephant itself was replaced a few years after the construction of the July Column (1835-40) on the same spot.
When the Bastille fell in July 1789, there was some debate as to what should replace it, or indeed if it should remain as a monument to the past. Pierre-François Palloy secured the contract to demolish the building, with the dimension stones being reused for the construction of the Pont de la Concorde and other parts sold by Palloy as souvenirs.<ref name="CAS">Lost Paris: The Elephant on the Place de la Bastille. 24 May 2011. Accessed 20 August 2011.</ref> Most of the building was removed over the subsequent months by up to 1,000 workers.<ref name="DF">Place de la Bastille, Part 5, Discover France. Accessed 20 August 2011.</ref> In 1792 the area was turned into the Place de la Bastille with only traces of the fortress that had once dominated the area remaining.
In 1793, a fountain was built in the square. Known as the "Fountain of Regeneration", it had a very Egyptian-inspired design and depicted a woman with water flowing from her breasts.<ref name="Schama">Schama, Simon. Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution. Penguin; New Ed edition 26 Aug 2004.</ref>
Napoleon planned many urban regeneration projects for Paris and was particularly fond of monuments to his victories. He wanted to create a significant triumphal structure to demonstrate his military prowess and began the process of designing a 24 m (78 ft)<ref name="Lepage">Lepage, Jean-Denis GG. French Fortifications, 1715-1815: An Illustrated History. McFarland & Co Inc. 15 Dec 2009. p. 183</ref> bronze elephant. He planned to use the bronze from cannon captured in battle melted down and recast to create an imposing structure.<ref name="Schama" /> A stairway would allow visitors to ascend one of the elephant's legs to an observation platform on its back.<ref name="Schama" /><ref name="Frey">Katia Frey, L'Enterprise napoléonienne, in Paris et ses fontaines, p. 120-21.</ref>
Dominique Vivant was given the task of overseeing the project. Initially Jacques Cellerier was chosen as the architect and work began in 1810 on the ground works, with the vaults and underground pipes completed by 1812.<ref name="Bruyère">Bruyère, Louis, Études relatives à l'art des constructions, t. XII (Mélanges), Paris, 1828. p. 7 –11. (French)</ref> At this point Jean-Antoine Alavoine was chosen to replace him and the main pool was soon completed.
Alavoine, realising the need to show how the finished work would look, recruited Pierre-Charles Bridan to create a full-size model using plaster over a wooden frame.<ref name="Schama" /><ref name="vol">Paris à vol d'oiseau, "Monuments", Paris, 1845, p. 108. (French)</ref> Completed in 1814, the model was protected by a guard named Levasseur who lived in one of the elephant's legs.<ref name="Schama" />
The construction work stopped in 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.<ref name="Frey" /> However, Alavoine was still seeking support to complete the project in 1833 and others also showed interest in finishing Napoleon's ambitious plans. In 1841 and 1843 the city council discussed options to complete the work using bronze, iron, or copper but none of the proposals were accepted.
Nearby residents began to complain that rats were inhabiting the elephant and searching for food in their homes, petitioning for demolition from the late 1820s. The model elephant was not removed until 1846 by which time it showed considerable wear.<ref name="Hillairet">Hillairet, Jacques. Connaissance du Vieux Paris. 1956. p. 9-10. (French)</ref>
The circular basin on which the elephant stood remains to this day and now supports the socle of the July Column.
The elephant itself was described negatively by Victor Hugo in Les Misérables; little other account of contemporary public perception is available. Template:Quote
In April 2012 a smaller replica of the elephant was built in Greenwich as part of the set of the 2012 film version of the musical Les Misérables.
Simon Schama, in the first chapter of Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (1989), tells the story of the Elephant of the Bastille, which he uses as a symbol of the failed hopes of the French Revolution.
- Elephant de la Bastille aquarelle de Jean Alavoine.jpg
Watercolour by architect Jean-Antoine Alavoine
- Fontaine de la Bastille, par Louis Bruyère.jpg
1828 representation of the fountain by Louis Bruyère
- Vue du canal de l'Ourcq sous la fontaine de la Bastille, par Louis Bruyère.jpg
1828 representation of the canal beneath the fountain by Louis Bruyère
- Eléphant Bastille (2).jpg
1834 engraving by an unknown artist
- Eléphant bastille.JPG
1853 drawing by Gabriel Roux
- Charles Ribart, a French architect who also made plans for a giant elephant in Paris
- Lucy the Elephant