- This article is about the "Little Africa" in Paris, France. For other uses, please see Little Africa.Template:More footnotes
The Goutte d'Or (Template:IPA-fr, Drop of Gold) is a neighbourhood in Paris, located in the 18th arrondissement.
The neighborhood has large numbers of North African and sub-Saharian residents. It is known for its open-air market, le marché Dejean.<ref name="Dyer">Dyer, Ervin. "Little Africa in Paris is a continent within a city." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Sunday 27 October 2002. Retrieved on 22 February 2010.</ref>
In common terms, the name 'Goutte d'Or' refers to a loosely defined area around the rue de la Goutte d'Or, to the east of Montmartre and to the west of La Chapelle in the 18th arrondissement of Paris. When used for administrative or statistical purposes, the Goutte d'Or may be defined in at least three different ways:
- The "Sensitive Urban Zone" (ZUS) of La Goutte d'Or is bounded to the south by Boulevard de la Chapelle, to the west by Boulevard Barbès, to the north by Rue Ordener, and to the east by Rue de Tombouctou and Rue Stephenson.
- The neighbourhood council (conseil de quartier) area of La Goutte d'Or – Château Rouge (as defined by the council of the 18th arrondissement) is bounded to the south by Boulevard de la Chapelle and Boulevard de Rochechouart, to the west by Rue de Clignancourt, to the north by Rue Ordener and to the east by the railway lines heading out of the Gare du Nord. This is very similar to the definition of the ZUS cited above, the main difference being that the neighbourhood council boundaries include the whole of the Château Rouge area, which straddles Boulevard Barbès and which is an important centre for the West African community in Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France region. Château Rouge is very closely linked to the Goutte d'Or, and, depending on one's viewpoint, may be considered to be either a sub-neighbourhood of the Goutte d'Or or a separate, adjacent neighbourhood. In either case, there is no clear line that precisely defines the extent of Château Rouge.
- The "administrative neighbourhood" (quartier administratif) of La Goutte d'Or is substantially larger and continues further to the north, as far as the boundary between Paris and Saint-Denis.<ref>Atelier parisien d'urbanisme, Paris 1954-1999, données statistiques Population Logement Emploi, 18e arrondissement (Archive), 2005, P.5</ref> This administrative neighbourhood is bounded to the south by Boulevard de la Chapelle, to the west by Boulevard Barbès and Rue des Poissonniers (thus excluding the Château Rouge area), to the north by the Paris city boundary, and to the east by Avenue de la Porte de la Chapelle, Rue de la Chapelle and Rue Marx Dormoy. However, the area to the north of Rue Ordener is largely occupied by the railway lines heading out of the Gare du Nord and associated SNCF technical facilities.
This neighbourhood has been working class at least since the 19th century. Émile Zola set there the plot of his novel L'Assommoir, depicting the life of alcoholic workers.
From the 1920s, the area witnessed a substantial influx of population from Algeria (then part of France). The Algerian population stabilized in the 1950s, while population from other European and African countries increased. Today, a large part of the population is either foreign or of foreign descent. As of 2006 the INSEE estimated the proportion of foreign nationals at 34.6%.
As of 2002 a large number of illegal immigrants were living in the area. During that year, Ervin Dyer of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette said that his guide (no factual evidence provided) told him that the number of illegal immigrants was (is) increasing.<ref name="Dyer"/>
As of 2012, at least 35% of the residents of Goutte d'Or were of immigrant origin, including West African and Algerian, a figure unchanged from 2006.
- Église Saint-Bernard de la Chapelle
The neighbourhood hosts many African shops and an open air market, the marché Dejean.
Government and infrastructure
- The Pôle Santé Health Centre is located in Goutte d'Or.
Goutte d'Or has four nursery schools (écoles maternelles), four primary schools (écoles élémentaires), two écoles polyvalentes, and one high school (collège).<ref name="PrezGDR">"Présentation du rep-08 Goutte d’or." Centre Académique de Ressources pour l'Éducation Prioritaire. Retrieved on 15 June 2010.</ref>
The nursery schools include École Maternelle de la Goutte d'Or, École Maternelle Marcadet, École Maternelle Richomme, and École Maternelle Saint-Luc. The primary schools include École Élémentaire Pierre Budin, École Élémentaire Cavé, École élémentaire d'Oran, and École Élémentaire Richomme. The écoles polyvalentes include École Polyvalente de la Goutte d'Or and École Polyvalente Emile Duployé. The neighbourhood has Collège Georges Clemenceau, the high school in Goutte d'Or.
The Goutte d'Or Library (Bibliothèque Goutte d'Or) is located in the neighbourhood. Template:-