Taksim Gezi Park

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Taksim Gezi Park is an urban park next to Taksim Square, in Istanbul's Beyo?lu district (historically known as Pera.) It is one of the last green spaces in Beyo?lu and one of the smallest parks of Istanbul. In May 2013, plans to replace the park with a reconstruction of the former Taksim Military Barracks (demolished in 1940) intended to house a shopping mall sparked the nationwide 2013 protests in Turkey.


The Taksim Gezi Park is located at the former site of the Halil Pasha Artillery Barracks, a large square-shaped military barracks complex with an extensive open, drill-ground, which was constructed in 1806<ref name="Yildirim" /> near the "Frank and Armenian burial grounds", or the former Grand Champs des Morts.<ref name="Grand Champs des Morts">Template:Cite journal</ref><ref name="nytimes.com">Template:Cite web</ref>

File:Nm mezar taslari 1630.jpg
Armenian tombstones from the Pangalt? Armenian Cemetery, discovered in 2013 during the excavations for the tunnel of Cumhuriyet Avenue as part of the pedestrianization project of Taksim Square. The cemetery was located on the northern section of Taksim Gezi Park.

From 1560 to 1939 the Pangalt? Armenian Cemetery was located on the northern section of today's Gezi Park, at the vicinity of the Surp Agop Hospital. The land plot of the cemetery was confiscated by the Turkish government as part of Henri Prost's plans to build Taksim Gezi Park and it was subsequently demolished in 1939.<ref name="nytimes.com"/><ref name=newyorker>Template:Cite news</ref> In 2013, during excavations conducted for the tunnel of Cumhuriyet Avenue as part of the pedestrianization project of Taksim Square, 16 tombstones from the cemetery were discovered.

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One of the main entrance gates, designed in Orientalist style, of the Halil Pasha Artillery Barracks (1806) which was transformed into Taksim Stadium in 1921. The building was demolished between 1939 and 1940 to be replaced by the southern section of Taksim Gezi Park.

Known in the 19th century as the Grand Artillery Barracks at Pera, the Halil Pasha Artillery Barracks complex (Template:Lang-tr) was built in 1806. The facade of the barracks was designed in the late Ottoman architecture, with Orientalist style details such as onion domes on the monumental entrance gates, which didn't belong to classical Ottoman architecture. The barracks suffered considerable damage during the 31 March Incident in 1909.<ref name="ah">Template:Cite news</ref> The barracks, which was later transformed into Taksim Stadium in 1921, was demolished between 1939 and 1940 as part of Henri Prost's plans to build Taksim Gezi Park.

In 1936, the French architect and city planner Henri Prost (1874–1959) was invited to Turkey by President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. He was tasked with the preparation of Istanbul's rough-cut urban planning and rebuilding, which lasted until 1951. In accordance with Prost's plans for Taksim Square, which he completed in 1939, the barracks buildings were demolished between 1939 and 1940 by the city governor and mayor Lütfi K?rdar (in office 1938–1949).<ref name="ah"/> Prost described the place before demolition as following:Template:Quote

It should be noted, that in 1921 the internal courtyard of the barracks was rearranged and used as the Taksim Stadium. The Turkish national football team played their first ever official international match in this stadium against Romania on October 26, 1923, that ended up with a 2–2 draw.<ref name="ah"/> The soccer matches were discontinued on March 25, 1940.<ref name="Yildirim" />

Prost's master city plan, which came into force in 1939, provided for a much larger Taksim Gezi Park with continuous green space, which he called Park No. 2, covering an area of Template:Convert between the neighborhoods of Taksim, Ni?anta?? and Maçka extending to Bosphorus including the Dolmabahçe Valley.<ref name="Yildirim" /> The larger park was intended to offer green space for recreation to Istanbul's residents and tourists, but it has never been completely realized.<ref name="ah"/>

The construction of Taksim Gezi Park was completed in 1943, and it was opened under the name "?nönü Esplanade"<ref name="Yildirim" /> in honor of the second Turkish president ?smet ?nönü (in office 1938–1950) by Lütfi K?rdar personally. The covering area of the park diminished in later years with the construction of big hotels in the outlying zone. Nevertheless, the park remained an important recreational area within the downtown of the city, and its appearance changed to the better after restoration.<ref name="ah"/>

2013 protests against redeveloping the site


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An elderly woman with Turkish flag on Taksim Square during the 2013 protests

From 28 May 2013 protests began to occur against plans to replace Taksim Gezi Park with a shopping mall and possible residence.<ref name=GMT31May>Template:Cite news</ref> The protests developed into riots when a group began occupying Taksim square and the police tried to suppress the demonstrations. The subjects of the protests have since broadened beyond the development of Taksim Gezi Park, covering issues such as freedom of assembly and freedom of expression, as well as more broadly defending the secularism of Turkey.<ref name="AlJ1">Template:Cite news</ref> The protests also spread to other cities in Turkey, and protests were seen in other countries with significant Turkish communities.<ref name="ajarrests">Template:Cite news</ref><ref name="Tattersall">Template:Cite news</ref>

In 31 May 2013, police suppressed the protesters with tear gas, pressurized water..<ref name="ajarrests"/><ref name="Tattersall"/> The police action received wide attention online.<ref name="AlJ-stream">Template:Cite news</ref>

Following the protests the Istanbul based platform InEnArt presented Urban Voices which opens a critical view on cultural practices and phenomena that expresses the ethos, aspirations, and dreams of a specific population during a well-defined era and that triggered dramatic cultural changes in the past. One section of Urban Voices focusses on the protest culture in Turkey as described with the neologism Çapuling. It describes and reflects the visual culture, humor and irony of the peaceful protestors (the Çapulcu) as it developed in many forms in Turkey during 2013.

As of 10 September 2013, a total of seven people have lost their lives in the protests: Mehmet Ayval?ta? (20), Abdullah Cömert (22), Ethem Sar?sülük (26), ?rfan Tuna (47), Selim Önder (88), Ali ?smail Korkmaz (19), Ahmet Atakan (22) and Police officer Mustafa Sar? (27), who fell from a bridge while in pursuit of demonstrators. A further 8,500+ were injured and twelve lost an eye, after being hit by teargas grenades and police's brutal interventions. Police received widespread criticism for, among other things, using tear gas within buildings. The Koç Group, which had supported the demonstrators by giving them sanctuary in one of their hotels near Taksim was then subject to a tax investigation.


See also

  • Taksim Square
  •  ?stiklal Avenue



Further reading

  • Gokay, Bulent and Xypolia, Ilia (eds.) (2013) Reflections on Taksim -Gezi Park Protests in Turkey. Keele European Research Centre: Keele, UK. (PDF)

External links

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